Hsc English 2nd Paper Composition Writing

                      English 2nd Paper

Table of Contents

                                Composition Writing

Female Education in Bangladesh/Necessity of Female Education in Bangladesh

 [DB ’17, RB ’16; CtgB ’16, ’14; SB ’12; DinajB ’11]

Females are almost half of the total population of Bangladesh. So the importance of females is not less than the males in our society. Their intellectual, psychological and moral levels influence the whole nation to a great extent. As a result female education in Bangladesh is given importance for her national growth and development. But the scenario is not so satisfactory.

In our family and social life, the females play a very vital role. As mothers, sisters and housewives, their function is highly important. They give the children primary academic education and moral lesson. The mental make-up, nature, behaviour, moral values, character, personality- everything of the children largely depend on the knowledge and skills of the female. Even the health and treatment of the family members are also largely dependent on their care and consciousness. Actually females are the key factors in the family life. As they play such vital roles in family and society, they must be properly educated. If they are not educated the whole society will be affected.

A woman has a significant role as a citizen in the state as well. She has to know her rights, privileges and duties. If she gets education, she can prove her worth.

In our society women are mostly neglected. They are deprived in every sphere of their life. If they get education, they will feel themselves powerful and nobody can deprive them of their rights.

The Government of Bangladesh has taken some positive steps to promote female education and has made female education free up to HSC level. To encourage female folk in education they are given special quota in jobs.

Apart from these, media are playing praiseworthy role to promote female education. A day will come in Bangladesh when all females go hand in hand with men in every sector. Only then we can hope for a developed a nation. (Words : 312)

     My Favourite Poet (Kazi Nazrul Islam)/Personality You Like Most          [RB ’17]

Kazi Nazrul Islam popularly known as the ‘rebel poet’ is my favourite poet. I admire all the great poets but I love Nazrul Islam most. His poetry has a great charm for me. My heart dances and blood stimulates (RvwM‡q †Zvjv) when I read his poems.

Nazrul Islam is my teacher, my guide. I like to recite some of the most famous lines of his poems. Nazrul’s poems give me hope and courage at the time of my despair. Though I am not a good singer, I like to sing some of his famous songs. I love and admire Nazrul Islam for his writings of revolutionary (wec­ex) spirits.

Kazi Nazrul Islam was born at Churulia in the district of Burdwan in 1899. He was born in a poor but noble family. He did not get a good chance for regular education. He was a restless child by nature. The school education had no charm for him. He walked about and received his lessons from whatever he saw or heard all around him. As a school pupil, as a teacher of a maktab, as an assistant of a baker’s shop, as a maker of songs for the Jatra Party and as a soldier in the First World War, he gathered a lot of experiences.

His books ‘Agnibina’, ‘Bisher Banshi’, ‘Bidrohi’, ‘Sarbahara’, ‘Bulbul’, ‘Dhumketu’ etc. are his notable works. They have a great contribution towards Bengali literature. He composed thousands of songs and ‘gajals’. He also wrote so many novels, stories, dramas and poems. His poems inspired thousands of people to fight for our independence.

Nazrul was at the same time a poet, a musician, a novelist, a story writer and a dramatist. Poet Nazrul Islam is greatly honoured as the national poet of Bangladesh. He died on the 29th August, 1976 in Dhaka. But his literary works will never die. (Words : 305)

        Climatic Change and Bangladesh / Climate Change and Its Effect       [DinajB ’17]

Climate change is the recent problem that is surrounding the whole nation. Our country is most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. People are very close to the risks of cyclones, floods and droughts (Abve„wó) especially who are living in rural or coastal areas.

There are many reasons for climate change in the world. The impacts of high temperature, more variable precipitation (e„wócvZ/ ZzlvicvZ), more extreme weather events, and sea level rise are the intensifying factors of climate change. The emission of carbon from industries is likely to be the prime cause of climate change. Because of carbon emission, the glacier of the Himalayas melt and that melting causes higher flows and severe floods. Deforestation is also a reason that increases carbon in the environment.

In Bangladesh, climate change will affect many sectors including water resources, agriculture and food security, ecosystems and biodiversity, human health and coastal zones. The climate changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of Bangladesh and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people. It worsens many environmental and developmental problems and the rainfall could increase flood affected areas in Bangladesh.

It is predicted that climate change could have devastating impact on agriculture. The rise of the sea level threaten the valuable coastal agricultural land, particularly in low-lying areas of our country. Biodiversity is also hampered in the Sundarbans and tropical forests. The effects of these impacts will threaten food security for the most vulnerable people of Bangladesh. A large number of people will become homeless, landless and will have to lead a miserable life.

The poor and the vulnerable in Bangladesh are constantly adjusting to climate change by raising their houses above the flood level or changing crop types. The government and also the foreign assistance are needed to get out of this maleffect of climate change. (Words : 305)

                                                            Rivers of Bangladesh                   [JB ’17, ’10; RB ’14; BB ’13, ’11]

Bangladesh is a land of rivers. There are more than 230 rivers in the whole country. The importance of rivers is really immense for the country. Our agriculture (K…wl), energy sector, water-way communication, economy, trade and commerce etc are greatly dependent on our rivers.

The Padma, the Meghna, the Jamuna and the Karnafuli are the main rivers. Besides these, there are many small rivers in our country. All the rivers are necessary in our national life.

River plays an important role in our agriculture. The rivers supply water and make the land fertile by depositing silt (cwjgvwU). Silt helps to grow plenty of crops as it makes the soil fertile.

The rivers abound with a great variety (cwic–Y© _vKv) fishes. Fishes are one of the main sources of protein which is very important for human body. Many people earn their livelihood (RxweKv) by catching and selling fishes. Thus river plays a great role in our economy and health.

Rivers play a vital (Myi“Z¡c–Y©) role in our communication. Our rivers are great means of transport (cwienb) too. Rivers can be extensively used to go from one place to another. People can make an easy and comfortable journey across the river. So rivers are of great importance to communication.

Rivers can be used as sources of energy. At present we get power from the hydro-electric project of Karnafuli.

Sometimes rivers become curse (Awfkvc) for us. In rainy season the rivers become full to the brim. They cause flood and flood causes a great suffering and even death to the people and animals. River erosion is another curse for us. Every year many people become homeless and shelterless and we lose much of our cultivable lands due to river erosion

In conclusion, we can say that our rivers are a great asset (m¤•`) for us. If we can use them properly (mwVKfv‡e), it will bring great benefit for us. (Words : 307)

                                  Environment Pollution                                                 [CB ’17]

Environment pollution is a great problem for the world. Air, water and soil are the main elements of our environment. These elements are very important for our survival on this earth. Unfortunately, every moment we are polluting these elements.

Air is an important element. We pollute air by creating smoke. We make smoke by cooking food, melting pitch, burning brick etc. Again, motor vehicles create huge smoke in the air. On the other hand, everyday we cut down more and more trees. It increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the air. As a result, world temperatures are increasing day by day and cause global warming. This creates a great harm to human beings.

Water is another important element of our environment. It is a matter of great regret that we also pollute it. Water is polluted in many ways. Industrial and household wastages are thrown into the river, canal and pond water. Chemical fertilizers used by the farmers also get mixed with water and the water becomes polluted. Even ocean is not free from pollution. Fishes and plants of water are in great danger.

Again, we also pollute soil everyday. We are cutting down trees. This causes soil pollution. Sometimes we throw plastic materials and poisonous things on soil. They also pollute soil.

We should take steps to stop pollution. The price of this serious pollution is death. We need to plant more trees to prevent pollution. We should not throw industrial wastes directly to the water. Students have some duties to lessen pollution. They can plant trees near their houses. They also can advise people about the bad effects of pollution.

We need to save our environment. It is important for our living. Government should take necessary steps to prevent pollution. Otherwise, it will bring threat to us. (Words : 300)

                    Dangers of Drug Addiction / Drug Addiction    [CtgB ’17; JB ’16; SB ’11,CB ’10]

The other name of drug is medicine, but when it is used indiscriminately with a view to making the users’ nervous system inactive, it is addiction. Drug addiction is a very dangerous social crime. It indeed destroys the young generation of a nation. Moreover, it destroys morality and breeds many other crimes in the society.

Up to the sixties, it was a problem of the industrially developed capitalist countries of the West. Since the end of the sixties, it has spread to the least developed countries like Bangladesh. Now the picture of drug addiction is not so pleasing. A section of young people is addicted to different types of drugs.

There are several reasons behind drug addiction. Acute unemployment, miserable poverty, political unrest, lack of social security, lack of any particular aim in life are the reasons for drug addiction. Out of curiosity, they take them at first but they become habituated. Thus a lot of our young men and women, even teenagers, have become addicted to different kinds of drugs. The situation is getting worse day by day.

Drugs have terrible effect on human body. It carries the addict to an unreal world of dreams. The addict feels drowsy, loses appetite and feels like smiting. They damage the brain and the internal function of the body and ultimately lead to death.

The perfect strictness of law must be continued including death penalty for drug smuggling. Steps have to be taken to treat and rehabilitate the addicted ones. No medicine should be dispensed without prescription. Young generation must be made aware of the dangerous effect of drug taking. Parents must be more careful about the education and upbringing of their children. A country-wide campaign against drug addiction should be undertaken immediately. To remove drug addiction is a mammoth task. United and determined efforts are needed to do it. (Words : 308)

                                              Patriotism                                                [SB’ 17; DB ’13]

Patriotism refers to the love one has towards one’s country. It is a noble virtue. The person who has love for his country is a patriot. A patriot’s patriotism leads him to save his country from any foreign invasion (Avµgb) at any cost (†h †Kvb g–‡j¨) and he is always ready to dedicate (DrmM© Kiv) his life for the prosperity of his country. To a patriot his country is like his mother and he never hesitates to sacrifice his life to save the honour of his country.

The patriotism of a patriot is his good sentiment, love, feelings and wishes of goodness to his country. Only patriotism can lead a man towards supreme sacrifice for the nation.

The people of our country showed a high example of patriotism during the liberation war of 1971. About 3 million people irrespective of race, religion, age or gender sacrificed their lives for the sake of the country’s freedom. It would not be possible without strong patriotism.

Bigot (†Muvov) patriotism or blind patriotism is no good. It leads to malice (we‡Øl) and jealousy (Cl©v) among the nations. It creates quarrel, conflict and clash among the countries. For this, freedom of his own country becomes at stake. When bigot patriotism goes beyond control, it brings destructive consequences. The bigotted love of Hitler initiated (ïi“ Kiv) the 2nd World War which killed millions of people and brought disgrace to Germany and Japan. On the other hand true patriotism leads to philanthropic (gvbe`i`x) love. It leads the nations of the world to prosperity and creates mutual respect. A true patriot loves his country and respects others’ sovereignty. He never hates other people’s culture and independence. Thus, his attitude is for universal welfare and peace. He becomes the glory of the world.

Every religion tells us to be patriotic. It is a noble virtue. We all should exercise this virtue in our life. (Words : 303)

                            Internet – boon or bane                             [BB ’17, ’13; CtgB ’12]

Internet is the latest wonder of modern science. It has really created a great revolution in the world. It is a computer-based global network system. Internet has a lot of uses. There is hardly any facility which is not got through internet.

Internet is composed of numerous interconnected computer networks. Each network may connect tens, hundreds or even thousands of computers.

We can get all kinds of information, knowledge, inventions, processes, techniques, technologies, arts, literature etc. through it. It enables us to share information, databases etc. with one another.

Now people all over the world can communicate cheaply and effectively with one another through Internet. Now it has turned the world into a Global Village.

It has brought about new opportunities to a government, business organisation, educational institution etc. It also helps to keep transparency (¯^”QZv) in all sectors of the government. Students can collect important information and necessary study materials through internet. Doctors and scientists can perform their research collecting latest information from internet.

Besides, it helps to find advertisements of various goods and services online to customers and business concerns. Today many people use Internet for shopping, paying bills and online banking. We can easily download and upload lots of our necessary things.

However, it has some negative effects also. Nowadays many people, especially teen-agers, are randomly misusing it. They often browse it or keep chatting through it. They sometimes use internet inconsiderately and waste a lot of time being absorbed in social networking sites. Thus they kill their valuable time and study, and ruin their future. Sometimes some criminals and terrorists take the advantage of internet to materialise their terrible targets.

Thus we see that internet has a lot of uses. Despite these, it has also some abuses.  So we should use internet wisely to keep pace with the rest of the world. (Words : 305)

               Students and Social Service     [DinajB ’16, ’13; CgtB ’14;BB ’14; JB ’11]

Students are devotees in the temple of learning. The first and foremost duty of students is to study seriously with devotion. They should try to gain knowledge and experience which will enable them to play their role in society. Without gaining proper knowledge they cannot be able to work for the welfare of the society as well as country. In fact, student life is the life of preparation— preparation for the struggle of life that lies ahead. So, study should be their most important duty.

In an underdeveloped country like ours, the students can do many things along with their study. At times they can be engaged in social services. They can do many benevolent works involving themselves in social service.

Mass illiteracy is a great problem. In this field, our students can make a distinct contribution. In town, they can run night schools for adults and when they go home during long vacation they can establish libraries, night schools, clubs, gymnasiums and the like. They can explain elementary rules of health and warn the people about the danger of population explosion.

Students must be ready to respond to the call of their country. They must come forward to render their helping hands in any kind of disaster of the country. When a country is face to face with a natural calamity like flood or famine, they can render social service by giving help to suffering humanity. They may collect money, clothes, blankets, foods etc, go to the flood and famine affected area and help them distributing this money, and materials.

Even the importance of Boy Scouts, Guides, Rover Scouts and Bangladesh National Cadet Cores is immense. If they are trained up in such branches of learning, they will be moulded up to render their social services wholeheartedly. Only then they will win the love and confidence of the people. (Words : 310)

My Childhood Memories / Some Recollections of My Childhood

[CB ’16, ’12; DinajB ’13 ’09; JB ’13; CtgB ’12; SB ’12]

Childhood is the sweetest period of human life. Everybody is fond of remembering his or her childhood days and I am no exception to this rule. Whenever I recollect my childhood memories, my mind fills with amusement.

I can hardly remember what happened during the first four years of my life. But so far as I guess, I was an object of care and affection to all in the family. Everyone in the family loved me very much.

I fondly remember the day of the beginning (m–Pbv) of my learning. I was then five years old. I was sent to village pathshala. There I was admitted to class 1. This village pathshala was an interesting place to me. I enjoyed reading there with a lot of boys of my age.

But the day ever to be remembered by me is the day on which my grandmother died. It is the saddest day of my life. I was then nine years old, so I could not properly understand what death meant. My father was sobbing (duywc‡q Kuv`v), my mother was weeping bitterly and my uncle was crying, but I burst into a loud cry (AvZ©bv` Kiv). Even now my eyes get wet with tears whenever her face flashes into my mind.

Another important event that I fully remember was the marriage ceremony of my uncle. I was then twelve years old. Our house was full of guests, and I passed a few days in the midst of joy and mirth. My aunt is highly qualified; she is kind and loving too. Soon I grew into her favour and affection. She took charge of my education and became my guide and guardian.

Of recollections outside school, the memory of plucking flowers, stealing mangoes, coconuts, etc. is still fresh in my mind. How happy I was at my childhood days! I wish I were a child again. (Words : 309)

     Duties of Students/ The Duties and Responsibilities of Students   [SB ’16; DB ’13]

Students are the hopes of the nation. As they are refined (cwikxwjZ) and tender, much depends on them for the development of the country. They have to render (Kiv) great service to the society. Students have the strength to play a vital role in gaining any positive thing. If they come forward vigorously, they can win any difficult situation. It is evident in our history.

Study is the principal duty of the students. They should enrich (mg„× Kiv) their realm (†¶Î) of knowledge by widening the outlook of their life. It is rightly called the seedtime of human life. If they sow good seeds in this period, they will have a good harvest in future.

Student life is the perfect period of preparation for all the problems that an individual and a community face. So, students have many other duties beside studies. They should take part in social activities. Students can do a lot to remove illiteracy from the society. They may conduct night school and educate the ignorant. Students should make people aware of the adverse effect of over population. Students can make the farmers aware of the modern method of cultivation. Doing all these things, they can keep a great contribution in the development of the nation.

Students have many other duties too. They must stand by the distressed, the poor and the deprived. Bangladesh often faces natural calamities. Students must work for the suffering people during these calamities. They may campaign to raise fund for relief and distribute them among the sufferers. They must avoid party politics, but must remain conscious of politics. They must grow up as ideal persons to be followed by others.

The students are the future leaders of our country. So, they must be well trained and well educated so that they can carry out (cvjb Kiv) their duties effectively. Then we can expect a better future for us. (Words : 310)

              Unemployment Problem in Bangladesh             [DinajB ’14; SB ’13; ’10]

Unemployment is the state of not having a job to earn one’s livelihood. This problem is one of the talked topics in the present context of Bangladesh. It is a curse and it has become acute in our country. In Bangladesh, there are different reasons behind unemployment problem.

Bangladesh is an overpopulated country. Her population is much larger than the job opportunities she can provide. As a result, government is not capable of providing employment for too many people. Moreover, there are some problems in our education system. Our education is not capable of making skilled people and there is a great difference between our education and professional proficiency. As a result, educated people have to suffer a lot.

People of our country hanker after dignified (m¤§vwbZ) job and some people just want to become officers only. Some people dislike laborious job and so they remain unemployed. This is a great reason behind this problem.

Unemployment problem in Bangladesh causes many social problems like drug addiction, drug business, terrorism, hijacking, extortion (ej cÖ‡qvM) and so on. Unemployed people of our society have to lead a miserable life and they become the burden of the nation. The burden of unemployment becomes a great curse to the unemployed people.

To solve the unemployment problem, government as well as non-government organisations have to take pragmatic initiatives. We have to foster industrialisation and establish new mills and factories. Vocational education should be encouraged and introduced. We should increase the rate of literacy so that people can be conscious of the bad effects of overpopulation. Our educated young generation should change their attitude to life. They can start small business of their own such as poultry farming, cultivating fish, growing vegetables etc. In fact, self-employment is a possible solution to this great problem. If all these can be implemented, the problem will be reduced to a great extent. (Words : 311)

 A Journey by Train / Journey I Have Made Recently   [DinajB ’14; CB ’12; CtgB ’12; SB ’09]

Journey is always a matter of pleasure to me and a journey by train is my most favourite journey. On the 5th January 2015, I had an excellent journey by train to Sylhet. Our college was closed for the winter vacation. I started for my uncle’s house at Sylhet from Dhaka. One of my cousins accompanied me. The journey was really very enjoyable to me.

We bought two first class tickets. We were waiting at the platform for the train. Soon the train arrived at the station. Passing a huge crowd, somehow we managed our seats beside a window. The train started from Kamalapur Railway Station at 10:30 pm.

The train was a mail train. It stopped only at the big stations. I was looking outside through the window and enjoying the natural beauty. It seemed that all the houses and trees on both sides were running backward. The sights were changing every moment. My heart was filled with amusement seeing the sights.

The train reached Bhairab Bazar at I2:00 a.m. We saw many passengers and hawkers at the station. Some hawkers entered the train and tempted (cÖjyä Kiv) us to buy different things. I bought chocolates and juice.  Soon the train started with whistles. The train was going towards Sylhet at a great speed.

Many passengers were talking of many matters of their own life. Some of them talked about our national politics. The young man sitting at my left side wanted to know about me and my journey. I told him and he also told of his ownself.

After a long journey, at last the train reached Sylhet in the morning. I got my uncle there. I felt very excited seeing him and he cordially received me and my cousin. It was a very pleasant journey indeed. I will remember it forever. (Words : 302)

Population Problem in Bangladesh [JB ’14]

The rapid growing population in Bangladesh is a burning question of today. It has created difficulties in every sphere of our life. As it is a serious problem, we have to solve it for the sake of our existence. If we cannot do so, we will have to suffer a lot in near future.

Bangladesh is a small country with the density of population of 1926 per square mile according to the census-of 1987 whereas in the USA it is about 41 per square mile. Bangladesh occupies the 8th position among the countries of the world in respect of population. Her growth rate of population, is 1.6%. If this growth rate continues, the population of Bangladesh will be double within the next thirty years. If it really happens, the nation will fall into a great trouble.

There are many causes of rapid growth of population. The growth of population in the country is the result of two main variables—the birth rate and the death rate. There is a large difference between the two rates, that’s why the growth of population is high. Climatic influence, superstition, and poverty are some of the main causes of high rate of birth. Due to the socio-economic condition a large section of our people wants male children. They think that male children will add to their family income and with the hope of male children they take more children.

It creates problems of food, clothing, housing, health, education and other spheres of life. If this population explosion is not checked immediately, people will have to make their houses in agricultural land and forest and they will have to starve (Abvnv‡i _vKv).

A family must not consist of more than two children. Early marriage must be totally banned. Our womenfolk must be made aware of better and prosperous life. Then only we can get rid of this problem. (Words : 312)

                         My Favourite Hobby                                  [JB ’14; DinajB ’10]

Hobby is an interesting work at leisure. Hobby means a favourite occupation of a man. But it is not his main business. A person usually does this to have pleasure in his mind. It may not bring him money but it gives him joy and pleasure. It is an important means of getting enjoyment. So it is necessary to enjoy life.

There are different kinds of hobbies like gardening, painting, drawing picture, stamp collecting, autograph collecting, coin collecting, kite flying, fishing etc. Different people have different types of hobby. I also have a hobby. My hobby is gardening.

I have a small garden in front of our house. I have planted many kinds of flower plants in my garden. I take care of my garden properly. I make the soil loose with a spade (†Kv`vj). I weed out the grass of my garden. Sometimes I water my flower plants. I have made a fence (†eov) around my garden so that animals and naughty children can do no harm to it. Every afternoon I spend at least two hours in my garden. As a result of it, my blood runs well. Besides this, gardening is very useful to health and mind. It strengthens my health and refreshes my mind. When the flowers bloom in my garden, I feel proud. When I get the sweet scent of my garden flowers, my pleasure knows no bound.

Gardening is very useful to a man. It gives a man pleasure. It makes a man active and healthy. If a man feels bored, he can spend his time in his garden. It helps a man to remove his boredom. If he grows some vegetables in his garden, this saves a lot of expenditure (e¨q) of his family. Moreover, to work in the garden is a physical exercise. So every man should have a hobby. (Words : 305)

                                  Birds of Bangladesh                                        [CB ’14; BB ’09]

Birds are beautiful creatures of nature and source of joy and pleasure. They enrich our natural beauty. Bangladesh is a unique abode (evm¯’vb) of birds. Various species of birds are seen in our country.

In Bangladesh, there are about 575 species of birds. Among them there are both migratory and domestic birds. About one-third of them are guest or migratory birds which come in September or October and live up to February or March. The rest are domestic birds. The most familiar but the least liked bird in Bangladesh is the crow. It is a bird of prey. It is very cunning. People usually dislike it because of its ugly appearance and harsh voice.

The common plundering (jyUZivR) birds are the kite, the seagull, the kingfisher etc. They have keen eyes, sharp claws and nails and sweeping nature. They swoop (†Quv gviv) down upon their prey and carry it away. Because of their nature they are called plundering birds.

The dove is a mild bird. It may be called a song bird as it is also noted for its songs. The pigeon is a small pet bird. Some people keep them as their hobby. The snipe, the bittern, the heron and the teals are called game birds as they are hunted and killed for food or sports.

The cuckoo is the most popular song bird. It appears with the coming of spring. The parrot, the maina, the chandana, the shyama, the koel and the shalik are popular singing birds. The doel is the national bird of Bangladesh .

The tuntuni, the babui and the swallow are called tailor birds. The sparrow is a very small bird. It is very active and alert. Again the vulture is a common bird. It feeds upon the flesh of dead animals.

Birds add charm and beauty to the flora and fauna of our country. It is our moral responsibility to help them survive. (Words : 314)

Deforestation/ The Effects of Deforestation on the Environment [CB ’14; DinajB ’13; RB ’11]

The cutting down of trees indiscriminately (wbwe©Pv‡i) is called deforestation. People cut down trees for various purposes without any consideration. To meet up the basic needs of food and housing trees are being cut on a large scale and thus it causes the ecological imbalance. Consequently, the atmosphere of the world is going under a huge threat.

The causes of deforestation are many. The large number of population of our country needs more shelter, agricultural land, fuel, furniture and so on. To meet all these demands people cut trees indiscriminately, forgetting the dire (fqven) consequences of the days to come. Besides, there are some dishonest people who cut trees in our forest to make money. Due to their greed for money our forestlands are being destroyed.

The bad impacts of cutting trees indiscriminately are too many to describe. As a result, of deforestation, the existence of animals is going to be threatened. We get oxygen from trees. Due to deforestation, carbon dioxide is increasing worldwide. As a result, the world is getting warmer. The sea level is rising and many parts of the world are going to be engulfed by the sea in near future. If it happens, a significant number of people of the world will turn into climate refugee.

Deforestation destroys the ecosystem of the environment. If we destroy trees at random, one day the country will turn into a great desert. The country will be unsuitable for living and various natural calamities like flood, drought, storm etc. will visit our country. Then the country will suffer extensively.

Necessary measures should be taken to prevent deforestation. We should plant two trees if we cut down one. People should be made aware of tree plantation through mass media. As a whole, tree plantation programme should be extended throughout the country. Finally, we all have to work together to save our beautiful world. (Words : 311)

                                        Value of Time                        [CtgB ’14; SB ’12; JB ’11, SB ’10]

It can undoubtedly be said that the value of time is limitless. It cannot be measured. Its main focus is that human life is short but he has to do all his works within the short span of time.

“Time and tide wait for none.” Really, time is the most valuable asset in human life. He who cannot make proper use of time is sure to suffer in the long run. There is no certainty that tomorrow will come in our life. So present should be the motto of working. So, the value of time is immeasurable.

Every work has its proper time and we must perform it at its right time. Any delay may lead us to failure. The students must follow this rule strictly. No student can reach his or her goal wasting time with trivial work.

There lies the secret of life in the proper utilization of time. Time once gone is gone forever. Lost wealth may be regained by hard labour, lost knowledge by study, lost health by taking proper food and medicine, but lost time can never be brought back by any means. If we look at the history of human civilization, we will find them to be successful who made proper use of time in their lives.

Waste of time may breed the cause of crime. An idle brain is the devil’s workshop. An idle person commits different types of crimes. Besides committing crimes, he easily brings about his ruin in life.

If we look at nature, we can see that ants, bees, birds, insects etc work timely. They do not waste a single moment. We can learn from nature how to make the best use of time.

Value of time indicates that a person should not waste time, rather he should spend every minute in useful works. This will make his life worth living and glorious. (Words : 313)

                                      The Season I Like Most / Spring in Bangladesh                           [RB ’14]

There are six seasons in Bangladesh and among all the seasons, I like spring the most as it is the loveliest of all the seasons. It is called the king of seasons. The months of Falgun and Chaitra form the season of spring. It comes between winter and summer. In this season, the weather is neither so cold nor so hot. The weather remains very comfortable.

During the winter, nature becomes dull and dry and the leaves of trees fall extensively. But with the advent of spring nature takes a new look and life. The trees and plants become adorned with new leaves, new buds and flowers.

The spring is the season of flowers. Various kinds of flowers bloom in this season. The scent of flowers spreads all around. The kamini, the hasnahena, and the bakul make the atmosphere fragrant with their sweet scent. They make the season pleasing, charming and bewitching (g‡bvgy»Ki). People can enjoy the beauty and sweet scent of the flowering.

This season is the season of songs in our country. The cuckoo sings its melodious songs. It hides itself in the leaves of the trees and coos. All other singing birds pour out their sweet, thrilling, welcoming notes in the fullness of their heart. The singing of birds fills the minds of people with pleasure.

This season is the period of abundance. Vegetables grow in plenty. It is the best harvesting period. Crops and grains cover the fields. Plants and trees become lively.

Spring wins my heart with her manifold charms. No one can overlook her wealth of natural beauties, and her pleasant temperate climate.

So, spring is the king of seasons. It is the season of youth and colour, new leaves, new buds, new flowers, sweet melody, gentle breeze and moderate climate. The season is really enjoyable to all. (Words : 303)

                                        Importance/ Benefits of Reading Newspaper                        [SB ’14, ’11]

Newspaper is a wonder of modern science. It is a moving mirror of the world we live in. It is a storehouse of knowledge of home and abroad. Modern life cannot be imagined without newspaper. Everyone waits for the newspaper in everyday morning. One who does not read newspaper is like a frog in a well. Reading newspaper is essential to keep pace with the world.

A newspaper is a paper that gives us news of our country and of different parts of the world. Carlyle called it the ‘Fourth Estate’. Indeed a newspaper has become an essential item to modern life.

Different types of people get different types of benefit from newspaper. Businessmen read them to know the condition of markets. Sportsmen find pleasure in reading sports news. Students can get benefit from the page of study materials. Film fans go through cinema pages to get entertainment. From advertisement columns, job seekers and traders get useful hints and information. Statesmen and political persons read newspapers to know political currents of the world. Besides, newspapers have corners for children and women. For all these reasons, newspapers have become universal reading matters today.

Moreover, newspapers play an important part in our social and national life. They teach general people and help to form public opinion. They publish grievances (`ytL-`y`©kv) of people. A democratic government feels the pulse of the people through honest criticisms of newspapers.

In spite of having numerous advantages, newspaper also has some disadvantages. Sometimes a newspaper publishes misreports or false reports. They lead to dangerous consequences. Some newspapers also spread propaganda (wg_¨v cÖPviYv) with a view to serving their purposes. Sometimes they excite people in a wrong cause and thus mislead them.

On the whole, newspaper reading is a very good habit. In order to keep ourselves up-to-date with news and views, we should read newspapers. (Words : 306)

 

My First Day at College/ A Memorable Day in My Life/ The Day I Will Not Forget Anyhow

[SB ’14; RB ’13; JB ’13, BB ’12, ’09;CtgB ’10]

In our short life, there are some events, some days which cannot be forgotten. My first day at college is such a day. It is, in fact, an unforgettable day in my life. The memory of my first day at college will remain vivid throughout my whole life.

I was a student of Dhaka College which is one of the best colleges in our country.

The thrill of pleasure which I felt on entering through the gate of my college on the first day beggared description. I went to the notice board and took the class routine. Then I went to the classroom and took a seat on the last bench. The class was full of students. All the faces were unknown. I eagerly waited for the first class to start.

The bell rang. In silent excitement we waited for the first professor to address us. It was our English class. After about a minute, a good looking young man came with a register and a textbook. He called our rolls and marked us present. Then he started his lecture. He spoke in English. He explained the importance of English language and very nicely made us understand the fact. I also attended two other classes on that day. I found that in a college a single teacher teaches a single subject on which he or she is specialized.

Then I went to the common room and found that many boys were reading newspapers and magazines. There were also carom boards, chess-boards and ping pong tables for healthy recreation. On that day I also entered the college library and saw many books.

My first day’s experience made me feel that I was no longer a school boy. Still I remember my first day at college. It was really a day of observing and experiencing new things. (Words : 305)

                                                               Satellite Channels                                [SB ’13; CB ’11, DB ’09]

Satellite TV or Dish TV is one of the most well-known means of entertainment at present. Millions of TV viewers throughout the world watch satellite television. The viewers of satellite TV ranges from kids to old people. I fact people of all ages and all classes can enjoy their favourite programs from numerous channels. It has become a great source of recreation.

Satellite channels broadcast some useful programmes. They include BBC, CNN and Aljazeera news, National Geographic and Discovery programmes etc. The programmes of these channels help us in various ways. Through these channels, people can know the news of the whole world as well as learn many things.

Satellite channels telecast not only educative but also entertaining programmes. Besides cultural programmes, we can enjoy various types of recreational programs like cinemas, telefilms, movies, plays through them. With the help of satellite we can watch many international summits, conferences, events and sports. We get all these facilities due to satellite channels.

But most satellite channels telecast some programmes which are not suitable for us as well as our kids and teenagers. These programmes may have a long term negative effect on their tender minds. At present, it has become a matter of great concern to most of our guardians. Sometimes young boys learn how to commit crimes watching violent programmes on satellite channels.

Satellite Television has other effects too. It has now come as a cultural aggression (nvgjv) for many countries and societies. With the advent of satellite television in Bangladesh, it is threatening the age-old values, enriched culture and tradition of our country.

Youths, particularly teenagers are exposed to various international satellite channels and it is a serious threat to our culture and tradition. So the government should permit (AbygwZ `vb Kiv) only those channels which are not threat to our culture and moral values. (Words : 302)

                                                      Television – blessing or curse               [DinajB ’13; RB ’12; CtgB ’11]

Television is one of the wonders of modern science. It is the most up-to-date means of entertainment. Modern people cannot think of a single day without television. It provides both sound and pictures to entertain the viewers. It amuses us with its charms. It is really the most common source of entertainment throughout the world.

A German scientist, Paul Nepkov, invented television. Then John L. Baird modernized it. Basically it is based on electronic photography.

The merits of television are very great. It informs us of the current affairs, sports, politics, science, business and other events. It is a good means of communication. People can enjoy any event occuring in any place of the world sitting at their home through television.

It is the most popular means of entertainment. By means of television, we can enjoy different programmes live including games and sports which may be held in the farthest corner of the world.

Television is a strong medium of learning many important and essential matters related to human life.

It can teach both the illiterate and the literate. Television is a very effective means of advertisement. People all over the world can be introduced with various products by watching advertisement.

Television is helpful to remove boredom (K¬vwš@Ki Ae¯’v) of our routine work. Almost every family in our country has a television set as it is not so expensive. Common people can easily entertain themselves by watching television.

However, it has some bad effects as well. Our young boys and girls sometimes neglect their studies because of it. Too much viewing and a close viewing of television may cause harm to the eye-sight of the viewers.

Television is a great contribution of science to modern life. It entertains as well as instructs us. It has made our life more enjoyable. We should use it wisely. (Words : 301)

                                                              Greenhouse Effect                                         [JB ’13]

Greenhouse effect is the gradual warming of our surrounding as a result of heat being trapped by environmental pollution. It creates ecological imbalance. The atmosphere of the whole world is undergoing a significant change due to Greenhouse effects. It has a far reaching effect on the world.

There are multiple causes of Greenhouse effects. The destruction and burning down of the forests, rapid growth of unplanned mills and factories, the use of manufacturing products and the use of detergents, etc. cause Greenhouse effects. Besides, overpopulation, air pollution, water pollution, deforestation and increase of temperature cause Greenhouse effects. Burning of fossil and wood produce carbon dioxide. It is the most responsible gas to occur Greenhouse effects. It increases surface temperature and results in Greenhouse effects. Due to carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere, heat is trapped and the earth cannot release heat properly. As a result, the surface air gets warmer.

A great change takes place in weather and climate. Storm and cyclone occur frequently. The rivers and seas overflow their banks and cause floods and the suffering of the people beggars description.

Climatologists predict that at the middle of this century temperature may rise by 4°C. This can disastrously reduce food production, severely damage wildlife and cause the rise of sea levels. It may take a serious turn making Bangladesh go under water.

Necessary measures should be taken to prevent the dangerous Greenhouse effects. There should be no deforestation in the country. More CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) stations should be established to drive more vehicles with the help of CNG to remove air pollution.

No men and animals will be able to exist unless the causes of Greenhouse effect are controlled. So the government as well as the people should be alert against this environmental problem. We must do so with the highest importance to save the world. (Words : 308)

                                         Natural Disasters/Calamities in Bangladesh                              [SB ’13]

Bangladesh is vulnerable to frequent natural calamities. So, she is often called a land of natural calamities. Various types of natural calamities such as flood, cyclone, storm, heavy downpour, drought, etc. often visit our country.

Bangladesh lies in the tropical region and its land is low. Being a low-lying country, floods visit our country almost every year and sometimes it becomes severe.

Intense heat causes depression (g›`v) in the Bay of Bengal, and causes cyclonic storm which hits the off-shore islands and the mainland of Bangladesh. The miseries of the cyclone affected people know no bounds. Cyclonic storm takes away a heavy toll of life and damages the houses and other belongings of the affected people.

Flood visits our country almost every year. It is the most familiar natural calamity in our country. It causes a heavy damage to our life and properties. Houses are destroyed, cattle are washed away and crops are greatly damaged and trees are uprooted. People become homeless or shelterless. The floods in 1970, 1974, 1988 and 1998 caused a huge loss of life and property.

Drought in summer causes damage to our agriculture. Sometimes, the heat of the sun becomes unbearable to men and there is no rain. Moreover, load-shedding is a common scenario during this time. Crops grow much less if farmers cannot irrigate their lands properly. As a result, people, especially the poor, suffer a lot due to price hike. For all these things, people have to suffer a lot.

The people living beside the rivers are often in a fear of river erosion. Thousands of people become homeless due to river erosion every year.

Our people live fighting against all kinds of disasters and calamities. The government should come forward to help the affected people. The people should be informed of the forecast news about the disaster to minimize the losses. (Words : 308)

                                                   Natural Beauties of Bangladesh                                       [DB ’12]

Bangladesh is a colourful country. She is called the darling child of nature. As she is a country of moderate climate, she is blessed with many natural beauties. The natural beauty of the country is really beyond description.

The vast Bay of Bengal is situated to the south of Bangladesh. Green trees, birds chirping, yellow corn crops etc make our mind fulfill. Everyday we wake up hearing birds’ chirping.

The natural scenery of the village draws a general picture of thrilling (†ivgvÂ). When we go to the Padma, the Meghna, the Jamuna and the Karnafuli rivers, our mind becomes fresh. The water lily blooms (cÖùzwUZ nIqv) in the canals, beels and haors during the rainy season. The scenery is very charming to the common people of our country.

The local area of the east is decorated with tea gardens. There are a lot of tea gardens in Sylhet division. A large number of green parrots come to these tea gardens and that makes the scenery more beautiful. Specially the guest birds make the scenery more beautiful. During the summer season thousands of juicy (imv‡jv) fruits like mango, jack-fruit, pine-apple etc are found in our country. These fruits are very much tasty.

The autumn comes with a fine and clear sky and the sheuli flowers. All the time the white clouds remain (_vKv) in the sky in this season.

The winter comes with the dewdrops (wkwki we›`y) and trees without leaves, various kinds of pithas (home-made cakes) and date (†LRyi) juice etc. When the dew falls on the grass and the morning sun light shines on it; it looks like diamond.

The spring comes with the cuckoo’s singing. Many flowers bloom in this season. I think all people like the spring season.

In every season, Bangladesh is decorated with different natural beauties. I love my country very much. I am proud to be a citizen of such a country of natural beauty. (Words : 312)

 

                             Fruits of Bangladesh / The Common Fruits of Bangladesh                 [RB ’10]

Bangladesh is a country of moderate climate and fertile soil. A vast number of popular and delicious fruits grow in our fertile soil. The chief fruits of our country are the mango, the banana, the jackfruit, the coconut, the pineapple, the guava, the lichi, the blackberry, the woodapple, the papaya, the shaddock, etc. These fruits are not only tasty but also delicious. They are rich in food value as well.

As the name of our fruits is countless (AMwYZ), they differ from one another in sizes, shapes, colours and tastes. Some are big and some are small. Some taste sweet and some taste sour. Some are juicy too.

The mango is the king of fruits. It is the fruit of summer. It grows all over the country, particularly in Rajshahi and Dinajpur areas. Munshiganj is famous for bananas. The best varieties of bananas are sabri, amritasagar, agniswar and champa. The jackfruit is a national fruit. It is found all over Bangladesh mainly in the months of Jaistha and Ashar. But it grows in plenty in the hilly areas of Chittagong and Sylhet and in the highland of Dhaka, Narsingdi, Mymensingh, Comilla and Jessore.

The coconut grows in plenty in coastal (DcK‚jeZx©) areas. The pineapple grows well in Sylhet, Comilla, Dhaka, Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts.

The orange has vitamin C. It is a winter fruit. It grows only in the district of Sylhet. Besides, lemon is another fruit which is rich in vitamin C. It tastes sour.

Blackberry, guava, watermelon, lichi, wood apple, star apple, date etc. are also the common fruits of Bangladesh. They are available all over the country.

Fruits are very much essential to prevent diseases and keep our body fit. Besides, some fruits are used to prepare jam, jelly, chatni, etc. On the other hand, many families earn their livelihood by growing fruits and selling them. (Words : 305)

                                                 Rural Development of Bangladesh                                      [SB ’10]

Bangladesh is a developing country. Here most of the people live in villages or rural areas. That is why, the development of the entire country depends on the development of these areas. The development of village areas is called rural development.

There are different reasons for the underdeveloped state of our villages. Most of the people in the rural areas are illiterate. They are not conscious about their duties, rights and responsibilities. Moreover, there are different false beliefs, superstitions and malpractices among the villagers. For these reasons, our rural societies are lagging far behind.

Ours is an agro-based country and our economy largely depends on agriculture. So, our agriculture should be flourished and enriched well and our farmers ought to be well-trained and acquainted with the modern methods of cultivation. They should be provided with easy-term loan so that they can grow bumper crops.

Female education should be encouraged in a large scale. More schools and colleges should be established. The government should establish adequate hospitals, health centres, charitable dispensaries and clinics with proper facilities.

City dwellers of Bangladesh are enjoying the benefits of electrification but the neglected villagers are deprived of it. So, thinking about the rural development, the government of Bangladesh should take proper initiatives to electrify the rural areas.

Good communication is the life of business and very essential for economic development. The government should develop the rural communication system for the purpose of trade and commerce in rural areas.

Rural development is the focal point of our national development. If the condition of our rural areas is developed, it is certain that Bangladesh will be developed. So, the people of all stages along with the government should take proper initiatives for rural development. (Words : 287)

                                Modern Technology and Globalization / Globalization                    [DB ’10]

Nowadays ‘Globalization’ has become a buzzword (RbwcÖq). That means, it is a process of expanding trade and commerce all over the world by creating a borderless market. With the progress of sophisticated communications-media, rapid technological development and rapid transportation facilities, the world has become closer.

At present if anything happens anywhere in the world, people throughout the world can know instantly. Now the intermingling of culture, international trade system has played important roles to turn the world into a village.

Present age is an age of economic diplomacy. For the sake of trade, the countries of the world have come under the same platform. People are sharing their feelings with the help of cell phone, telephone, optical fiber, submarine cable, radio, television, VOIP etc. Because of globalization, cultures are penetrating into one another. Many economic dogmas like capitalism, socialism and Islamism are being mixed. So many economic, martial and political forums have emerged like SAARC, ASEAN, OPEC, EU, OIC etc.

Globalization is a blessing mostly for the advanced countries as undeveloped countries can no more compete with them successfully. The USA, the UK, Japan, Sweden, China etc are now controlling the free market of the world.

Language has also an important role to play in the acceleration of globalization. The countries lacking command of English are lagging behind. We have to gather strength to keep pace with the progressive forces of the world.

We must be alert about the dark sides of globalization as terrorists and mafia gangs are not lagging behind to spread the poisonous activities across the globe. Alongside we should look at the advanced countries so that we can get strategy from them to bring a revolution in our information technology. (Words : 283)

                               Newspaper Reading / Newspaper – Its Uses And Abuses       [SB ’14; CtgB ’09]

Nowadays, when all are more or less educated, almost everybody reads some daily paper. A man who never reads a newspaper cannot keep in touch with the times. A newspaper is a paper that gives us news of events as they happen every moment in different parts of the world. Indeed, a newspaper has become almost an indispensable part of modern life.

A modern newspaper is a chronicle (NUbvcwÄ) and an encyclopedia in miniature (¶z`ª cÖwZwjwc). Merchants read them to know the condition of the market. Sportsmen find pleasures in reading the sports news. The film fans go through the cinema page to get the thrill. From the advertisement columns, the employment seekers and traders get useful hints and information. Statesmen read the papers to know the political currents of the world. It is for all these reasons that the newspaper has become a universal reading matter today.

Newspapers educate public mind and help to form public opinion. They voice the sufferings of the people and seek for redress (cÖwZKvi). Indeed, the press is so powerful that it can make or unmake governments. That is why, whenever government becomes tyrannical, it tries to control the press and destroy its freedom.

A good newspaper gives us much more dependable news. We read it on political, social and other matters. We must be careful when we read it.

Sometimes a newspaper rouses popular passions against a country or a people or a community by giving exaggerated (AwZiwÄZ) versions of minor incidents. Sometimes they excite people in a wrong cause and thus mislead them instead of giving them correct news and views.

The great majority of newspaper readers are uncritical. Only a few think for themselves, and form their own opinions. On the whole, newspaper reading is a very good habit. In order to be up to date with news and views, we should read newspapers.

Tree Plantation / Afforestation

Tree plantation means planting seedlings and saplings to get profit and to maintain ecological balance. Planting trees is a noble work as plants and trees supply oxygen, the most vital thing for which we survive, give fruits, flowers, timbers and what not.

Trees are useful to us in many ways. Carbon dioxide makes our atmosphere or environment poisonous for us. Trees consume this carbon dioxide and thereby makes our environment safe for us. Some trees give us fruits and flowers; some trees supply timber for furniture. Trees make the land fertile. They save land from erosion. In summer, they bear the scorching rays of the sun and give us cool shade under them. Trees in our forests check the quick flow of rain-water and thereby check the occurence of high flood in our river. They maintain ecological balance.

Despite the immense benevolent service, the green trees are disappearing fast. People often cut down trees for fuel, furniture and other purposes. In addition, many greedy and corrupted officials and active gangs are engaged in cutting trees. This is creating a dangerous situation for our country.

Our country lacks large forests. We have some forests like the Sundarbans, Modhupur forests and forests of Chittagong Hill Tracts. But these are not enough. Nowadays Bangladesh has been facing drought, excessive rainfall and floods because of tremendous shortage of her forests.

We should, therefore, make it a point to plant more trees than we cut down. Every family of the villages should be encouraged and inspired to plant trees on the banks of the ponds and near the houses.

In fine, tree plantation is necessary for the maintenance of ecological balance. If we are careless about the importance of trees, our existence will be doomed. This is why an elaborate plan for plantation of trees is a must for us. (Words : 305)

Our National Festivals / Festivals of Bangladesh

Festivals of Bangladesh have always played a significant role in the life of the people of Bangladesh. Those are parts and parcels of Bengali culture and tradition. The people of Bangladesh like to observe different kinds of festivals. There are many festivals in our country. Some are religious festivals, some are cultural and some are historical.

Festivals play an important role in the social life of ordinary Bangladeshis. The biggest Muslim religious festivals are the Eid-ul-Fitr and the Eid-ul-Azha, Muharram and Miladunnabi which are celebrated widely in our country. The Hindus have many religious festivals like the Durga Puja, Shyama Puja, Saraswati Puja, Laxmi Puja which are also celebrated widely here. Among other religious communities, the Christians observe Christmas and the Buddhists observe Buddha Purnima.

The first day of Bengali New Year is a colourful event in the cities and villages throughout the country. The day (14 April) is a public holiday. The most attractive event takes place at Ramna Park in Dhaka. Students of the Institute of Fine Arts of Dhaka University organize colourful procession where paper made animals and masks figure are worn. Besides this, many fairs are held in Dhaka and other towns and villages in our country.

The biggest state festival, the Independence Day (26th March) and Victory day (16th December) are observed throughout the country. They are also public holidays.

Amar Ekushey Grantho Mela of every year is observed throughout the month of February in remembrance of the martyrs of the Language Movement of 1952.

Birth anniversary of the Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore on 25th Baishakh (8 May) and that of the National Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam on 11th Jaystha (24 May) are observed throughout the country. People all over the country remain joyful and excited on the festival days. They try to enjoy these days according to their sweet will. (Words : 300)

Science : A Blessing or Curse-Give Reasons

There are many surprising inventions of science at present and the impact of it is widespread. It requires a detailed discussion to decide whether science is a blessing or a curse.

Science has improved the means of communication. Now we can easily travel, communicate or look for anything. Science has shortened the time and distance and made it easy to visit any place in the world in the twinkling of an eye.

The computer, internet, mobile phone, radio, cinema, telephone, fax, television etc have connected the whole world in a network of communications. We can instantly send messages and get messages from any part of the world. Besides, we can watch any event live from the nearest or remote places through these devices of science. These also provide various kinds of entertainment.

Many latest technologies and scientific researches have largely increased the production in agriculture and industry. In the field of medical science, we notice the tremendous and unbelievable development. The transplantation of different organs of human body is possible now by the use of medical technology. We must not forget the invention of electricity which actually is the key to all scientific progress.

However, the demerits of science are also not less. Science has made human lives dependent on the machines and engines. The atom bomb, hydrogen bomb, tank, mortar-shell, cannon (Kvgvb), guns, biological and chemical weapons etc are the dangerous inventions of modern science.

Actually, science has given us motion but taken away emotion. It has made our life easy and comfortable but has put it on the risk and danger. However, we cannot blame science itself for the loss and destruction caused by science. It is the human beings who are to blame for the misuse of science. Undoubtedly, the blessings of science are many and undeniable. So science is a blessing and not a curse. (Words : 307)

Computer and Digital Bangladesh/ Digital Bangladesh

Our life today is governed by the offshoots of science. Computer invention is the most determining factor in this respect. It has brought about a revolutionary change in the face of the global world. This change has been possible through the information technology (IT) based on computer-internet system. This information technology or computer & internet based Bangladesh is called a digital Bangladesh.

To cherish such a dream of digital Bangladesh is easy but it is too much difficult to materialize this dream. Land phone, mobile, computer, laptop, e-magazine, e-book readers and many more tools of information technology will be available in every nook and corner of the country. People will no more have to stand in queue to collect tickets, result etc or to deposit and withdraw money or to buy and sell things.

Education is the backbone of a nation. So we must put our first priority on education sector with a view to establishing a digital Bangladesh. We can make video of teachers’ lectures of speeches and display them on the white screens before the learners. A learner can receive education sitting in his house.

Modern science has given birth to a new world in the field of medical treatment. If the internet connection can be spread widely, a patient can receive prescription of medicine without appearing before a physician by paying offers through online banking system.

We can make the administration dynamic, work-oriented and free from corruption by setting up CCTV camera through computer-internet system.

Computer network has made banking sector more dynamic than ever before. Now we no more need carry cash money with us to the remotest regions of the country.

It is said, “Hope springs eternal in the human breast”. We also hope that we shall be able to turn our war-shattered country into a digital Bangladesh by bringing about an all round development through computer internet system. (Words : 314)

A Visit to a Place of Historical Importance/ Interest

There are many places of historical interest in our country. I like to visit the places whenever I get time. During the last winter vacation, I had an occasion to visit the majar of Pir Khan Jahan Ali and the Shat Gambuj Mosque at Bagerhat. Four of my friends and I went there by launch on the 2nd January.

The majar of Khan Jahan Ali stands on a high land at Bagerhat. The tomb was built with cut out stones. On the tomb there are inscriptions (AwfwjLb) in Arabic. A big fair is held beside the majar every year on the night of the full moon in the month of Chaitra. The visitors coming here enjoy the time very much. I as well as my friends also enjoyed a lot.

There is a big lake like tank in front of the mazar. It is one of the biggest tanks excavated by him. There are some crocodiles in it. When the crocodiles come, people throw cocks, hens or goats at them and they swallow the offerings.

We stayed there for some time and watched the scene worth visiting. Then we left for the Shat Gambuj Mosque. This is about three kilometers away from the majar. The Shat Gambuj Mosque is a large building. Actually it has seventy seven gambuj or domes and not ‘shat’ or sixty gambuj, as the name indicates. The mosque has been declared as ‘World Heritage Site’ by UNESCO.

We spent about seven hours visiting these two places of historical importance. We felt like visiting these places in the days of Pir Khan Jahan Ali. The past history flashed before our mind’s eyes and made us very emotional. We came to Bagerhat in the afternoon. We enjoyed the full time of our visit. The visit was really a memorable experience in my life. (Words : 304)

Child Labour in Bangladesh

Child labour is very common in Bangladesh. Ours is an agro-based country. A citizen owns a very small plot of land which is not at all sufficient for his existence. As they cannot maintain their families, they are compelled to engage their children in manual work in their very childhood. As a matter of fact, our poor socio-economic condition is one of the main reasons behind child labour.

Most of the children work as domestic servants and maid servants. Sometimes they are engaged in making gardens. They have to weed out weeds in the corn fields. Often they have to tend the cattle. It is very pathetic that sometimes children are found engaged in risky jobs. Many children work in workshops, hotels and shops. Sometimes they have to break bricks and stones. They collect scraps of papers and ply rickshaws at this very early age. They work as street-hawkers selling chanachur, nuts and vegetables. Sometimes they carry building materials and brick on their heads. They work as porters in the platforms of stations. All these works they do are inhuman. These works are no how suitable for children.

Children have their rights to educate themselves for the preparation of life. We cannot but call child labour a crime. The employers take advantage of their helplessness and minor age. The house owners engage house-servants and maid-servants in work from dawn to late hours at night. Children have neither leisure nor recreation.

Children are ruthlessly (wbôzifv‡e) behaved in factories, shops and workshops. Though they work for a longer period, they get less wages. They are seriously deprived of all rights they deserve. Moreover they are treated brutally.

People of all walks of life and the government together should endeavour sincerely to eradicate (mg–‡j webvk Kiv) this problem from our society. Otherwise this child labour will drag us down to utter degradation. (Words : 305)

Food Habits in Bangladesh

Our country is rich with various types of foods which enrich our culture and make it familiar among the people of other nations in the world. Generally, rice, dal, fish, vegetables and meat are our main dishes. These are the most common food items in our country. People like these foods very much.

The people of Bangladesh usually take three meals in a day. In the morning, the urban people take ruti, parota, biscuit, vegetables, chicken, tea etc. and the rural people take muri, khoi, pitha or stale rice with chilly. These foods are actually the part and parcel of our culture.

Again, in our snacks we normally take parota, samosa, singara, puri, fried roti stuffed with eggs, naan, pitha, mishti, doi and rasmalai. These are tasty foods and specially young people like those very much. After taking our meals we usually drink tea, milk and cold drinks. We also take various types of fruits in our leisure time like mango, jackfruits, banana, pineapple, orange, apple, guava, watermelon etc. Our country’s fruits are tasty as well as full of nutritions.

The food habits of the people have been undergoing changes according to the demands of the time. Working people these days flock to roadside eating shops for quick meals at a low cost.

In the urban areas hundreds of restaurants offer Chinese, Thai and Indian cuisine for affluent families and business clients. Fast food restaurants have lately been coming up in a big way, mainly for the younger generation. Sandwiches, burgers, hot dogs and cold drinks or coffees are also favourite items now.

There’s a common saying: “Fish and rice make a Bengali.” However, in our daily meals we generally take various food items. Our food habits are very different in tradition and culture. The people of Bangladesh are fond of having different types of food. (Words : 304)

 

Your Aim in Life / Future Plan of Life

Everyone should have an aim. There is a proverb that a man without an aim is like a ship without a rudder. A rudderless ship drifts on at the mercy of the wind and waves. Similarly, an aimless man is drifted along the current of life and he reaches no definite destination. An aim is, therefore, something like a compass for the adventure of life. A compass shows the right direction to a person who goes on an adventurous journey. Similarly, the aim in one’s life leads one to the right path.

There are lots of aims for men and women in our society. Some men, for example, hanker after wealth, some seek power and position, some desire name and fame and some travel in the realm of knowledge.

I want to be a doctor in life because I think I have special fitness for it. I think this is one of the most suitable professions to serve the nation.

Another reason behind my choice is that the profession of a doctor is no doubt noble. It is surely a humanitarian career. In our country, more than eighty percent of the people live in the villages. They live in wretched poverty, hunger and diseases. This is an unfortunate situation which should not be allowed to continue. So I feel urge in my mind that it is my sacred duty to do something for the welfare of the poverty-stricken people of my own village. When I shall complete medical education and have my degree, I shall go back to my native village and start practising among my own people and try to help them in their illness.

There is really a great satisfaction in the service of the sick and the suffering people. By serving such men I shall be able to serve my motherland. (Words : 304)

Pahela Baishakh

The first day of Bangla new year is widely known as Pahela Baishakh. It is celebrated in a festive manner in Bangladesh. It is a national holiday. This day has a special significance for us as it forms a part of Bengali culture and tradition. People from all walks of life, irrespective of their ethnic identity or religious beliefs, celebrate the day with traditional festivities. On this day, the whole of Bangladesh is in a festive mood. The day inspires people to start life with renewed hopes and aspirations.

New year’s festivities are closely linked with rural life in Bengal. Usually on this day, everything is scrubbed and cleaned.

Baishakhi fairs are arranged in many parts of the country. Various agricultural products, traditional handicrafts, toys, cosmetics as well as various kinds of foods and sweets are sold at these fairs. The fairs also provide entertainment by providing folk songs, Baul, Marfati, Murshidi and Bhatiali songs. Among other attractions of these fairs are puppet shows and merry-go-rounds.

Young women wear white sarees with red borders and adorn themselves with bangles, flowers, and tips. Men wear white pyjamas or dhoti and kurta. Many town people, start the day with the traditional breakfast of panta bhat, green chillies, onion, and fried hilsha fish.

The most colourful new year’s day festival takes place in Dhaka. Large numbers of people gather early in the morning under the Banyan tree at Ramna Park where Chhayanat artistes open the day with Tagore’s famous song, Eso he Baishakh eso eso welcoming Baishakh. A similar ceremony welcoming the new year is also held at the Institute of Fine Arts, University of Dhaka.

Newspapers bring out special supplements. There are also special programmes on radio and television.

In fact, Pahela Baishakh is a symbol of the Bangladesh nationalist spirit and an integral part of the people’s cultural heritage. (Words : 309)

The Garment Industry of Bangladesh/ Ready Made Garments

The Ready Made Garments (RMG) occupies a unique position in Bangladesh economy. It is the largest exporting industry in Bangladesh. During the last twenty years, it has experienced a significant growth in our country. Besides, it earns a high amount of foreign currency over years.

Truly the industry plays a great role in the socio-economic development of our country. This industry has made all necessary agreements with textile clothing’s, WTO etc. Our country has been enjoying many privileges in the world markets in this respect. Many tariffs, quotas, subsidies etc. have been made flexible for our garments industry. Different types of products of the industry have been exported in many foreign countries. In the contemporary time, various positive and effective steps have been taken by our government as well as by different public and private sectors for the growth and development of this industry.

This industry has greatly helped the poor women folk of the country by providing them with different types of work. As a result, they have become wage earners and feel independent and self-reliant.

However, this industry is now facing challenges and problems. There are frequent workers’ strikes, layouts, shutdowns, disciplinary problems, fire, labour unrest etc. It is a matter of sorrow that some garment industries have shut down due to lack of proper care or over looking of our governments or some other authorities. If it continues for a long time, our country will face a great problem. A large number of workers will lose their jobs. They will have to face a miserable condition.

As the contribution and prospects of the garments industry in Bangladesh are very great and the products of the industry have a great demand in the foreign countries, our government and all concerned bodies must play their respective positive roles in this regard. (Words : 302)

Students and Politics

Students and politics are very crucially related in Bangladesh. Though there is a lot of debate, in our country student politics has become a part of the national politics. It is not at all a good sign for the future of the nation.

Both the parties in power and the opposition leaders use the students as puppets in their hands to gain power. They use them as they can organize the parties well by the gift of the gab in the mass meetings, shouting slogans. Sometimes the people in the government advise the students not to take part in politics. On the other hand, the leaders of the opposition party encourage them to take part in politics.

If the students don’t at all take part in politics, they will remain inexperienced and ignorant regarding politics when they are grown up and they will easily be deceived by the political leaders. They are taught abstract things with regard to political science, political economy, history, public administration and civics in colleges and schools and they can understand these things. They should have a little knowledge about these things practically. Being in contact with politics students may find that they have made a role in politics and they may change their opinions as grown up persons.

Students of today will be the political leaders in future. As politics influences every walk of life, students are supposed to take some interest in it. However, they should get prepared for the struggle of life.

Now we are not dominated by the foreigners. It is time for us to have a clear idea about the relation of students with politics. As a student of today is the leader of tomorrow, he/she must know the rights and duties of a citizen. So, one has to take interest in political and other affairs. (Words : 306)

The Village Fair / Your Visit to a Village Fair

The village fair is the annual joyous gathering of the village people. The village fair on the first Baishakh is almost common in Bangladesh. It is also held on some days according to the local importance. It generally sits in an open field or on the yard of a holy place. It sits for a day only. Sometimes it lasts for two days or a week also.

The village fair is an important part of our culture. It is a day of joy and rest for the villagers. People of all walks of life attend the fair joyfully and the fair takes a festive look. Last year I had an opportunity to visit a village fair which was very much enjoyable.

The fair was held on the occasion of Pahela Baishakh, the first day of the Bengali year. Temporary sheds were set up. Shops and stalls sat in rows. Fancy goods, cosmetics, sweetmeats, toys, flutes, kites were available in village fairs. Beautiful earthen wares, bamboo and wooden furniture were also available there.

There was a large crowd of children, girls, women and men in the village fair. Children were buying toys, flutes, kites and balloons. The girls and women crowded in the stalls of churis, ribbons and cosmetics. There was also great rush in the shops of sweetmeats. The village fair had its special attractions, too. Jatra parties, circus, magic, puppet shows and nagar dolas were arranged. Lathikhela, horse and bullock races were also held there.

I bought some earthen vases for my younger sister. The village fair was not free from evils. I saw some simple villagers losing all their savings in gambling (Ryqv‡Ljv).

After all, the village fair is a good annual recreation for the village people. It was not an exception too. The colour and joys of the village fair were wonderful. It will remain ever fresh in my mind. (Words : 311)

Winter in Bangladesh / The Season You Like Best

Bangladesh is a country which is blessed with six colourful seasons with colourful scenic beauty. Winter is one of them. In comparison to western countries, winter days are not wintry in Bangladesh. In Bangla year, Poush-Magh (December-January-February) are the two months of winter.

Winter follows the late autumn. Winter looks gloomy. Trees become bare of leaves. Days are very short and the nights are very long. People shiver in cold. They wrap themselves with quilt and blanket when they go to bed at night. Poor people in the villages make fire with leaves and straw in the morning to warm themselves.

All through the season, the weather is very foggy and cold. Most of the days, we cannot find the sunlight in early morning. For the well-off people this season is very pleasant, eagerly awaited and planned for. But for poor people, it brings curse through suffering. Death because of bitter (Zxeª) cold is the news of everyday. People in villages are in predicament (`y`©kv) for lack of warm colthes. Sometimes government distributes warm clothes among the slum dwellers.

The nature takes an outstanding look in winter. In the morning, when the sun starts to peep, the grasses with dew drops look like glittering gold. Children and other people are seen to bask in the sun. The gift of winter is also felt through food items. The foggy morning is flavoured by the  steaming hot pitha. New fresh vegetables and supply of fishes, date palm juice, molasses from sugarcane are found available in the market. ‘Pitha Utsab’ is usually celebrated by the people of capital in Dhaka. Some location is full of migratory birds coming from countries of extreme cold.

For the poverty stricken people the balmy and comfortably cool days of winter bring no cheer. As a whole, Bangladeshi winter has both exciting and depressing phenomena. We should welcome the season cordially. (Words : 313)

The Utilities and Evils of Facebook

Facebook is a very popular social networking site with over eight hundred million users. It has become so much a part of people’s lives that we can learn the life story just by checking their page. There are positive and negative effects that Facebook has on people and they can be quite significant.

Facebook is a great way to keep in touch with your family and friends who live far away. With the status updates, messaging, video chat, photos, and profile information, it can keep us up to date with the happenings of all of our close ones.

Facebook makes meeting new people extremely easy due to the fact that it allows you to add up to thousands of friends and act as a social melting pot of the internet.

Facebook makes expressing oneself very simple with status updates. It is a lot harder to feel embarrassment over the internet than in person. So, people find it easier to ‘vent’ their feelings on Facebook.

On the contrary, on Facebook it is very easy for cyber bullies to thrive. They can harass and/or gang up on one person. There aren’t moderators that go around monitoring what people say to each other. Anything can be said.

Furthermore, it is clear that school grades will suffer when spending too much time on Facebook as valuable study time is lost. Besides, some studies suggest that so-called teenage “hyper-social networkers” are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as smoking, drinking, drug use, fighting and promiscuity.

Active, but overt, monitoring and open communication about appropriate usage is the key to all the problems. This active role could prevent serious consequences such as depression, anxiety or even suicide. It is also important for parents to stay abreast with online trends and the latest technologies, websites and applications. (Words : 303)

Effects of Computers and the Internet on Society

Before we know it, technology is going to pass us by. With the invention of the computer and the internet, the possibilities are endless.

Society is changing by leaps and bounds, with no chance of a stopping point in the near future. The Internet affects us in every way, most importantly with our social lives, our jobs and our entertainment.

Our social lives are not just communicating with telephones and mail anymore. Going “on-line” is the new way we like to communicate with people.

Email is also another popular way to correspond with others. Users can electronically send mail to another person with an on-line mailbox, simply by typing in their message and sending it by the click of a button.

Computers can calculate and figure out things much quicker than the average person. This process can not only save time, but money too. Stock trading is now on the Internet, along with banking and any other type of business you could imagine.

In the future, hundreds or millions of jobs will be taken away from honest hard-working employees and will be given to computers. No matter what choices we make or what plans we change, these outcomes are going to become real.

Computers and the internet are definitely affecting the way we entertain ourselves. The most basic example is card games, chess, watching movies etc. People can do all of these activities in the comfort of their own houses. No cash money is wasted or time spent driving around to find entertainment and so people are happy.

The inevitable outcome of this magnificent invention is going to change the world. With the choice of having a computer and being on-line, there is almost nothing you cannot do. This remarkable idea of the internet is going to revolutionize the way we live in the future. (Words : 305)

Water Hyacinth

Water hyacinth is a floating plant with thick, glossy, round leaves, inflated leaf stems, and very showy lavender flowers. It is sometimes stuck in mud, appearing rooted, and it is rarely found as a single plant. It is found globally in the tropics and subtropics but its spread is limited by severe cold.

Water hyacinth makes waterways clog, making boating, fishing and almost all other water activities impossible. Water flow through water hyacinth mats is greatly diminished. Water hyacinth degrades water quality by blocking photosynthesis, which greatly reduces oxygen levels in the water. This creates a cascading effect by reducing other underwater life such as fish and other plants. Water hyacinth also reduces biological diversity. In Florida, millions of dollars a year is used to spend on water hyacinth control.

Despite these serious drawbacks, water hyacinth invasions can be harnessed for environmental benefit and renewable energy production. Water hyacinths have high cellulose content, making them a potential renewable energy source. We can also utilize the plants as craft materials such as bags, mats, accessories, table cloth and so on. As a result, waste that was very harmful can be finally profitable. Water hyacinth can cure throat-feels-hot, urticaria and ulcers. Nowadays, it can be brought to use as organic fertilizer. Water hyacinth can absorb metals like copper and lead from industrial sewage and living place sewage. It also can absorb mercury and lead melt in the liquid.

Where water hyacinth is found in abundance, it is not itself the problem, which is to be eradicated at all costs. Rather, it is a clear sign that something else is out of balance. Often it is a sure sign that the water contains too many nutrients, which may come from soil erosion, from agricultural chemicals or from domestic or industrial pollution. (Words : 302)

Women’s Empowerment in Bangladesh

Empowerment is needed where there is unequal distribution of power among people in any society or country. It results in people’s experiences of power or powerlessness. Women in Bangladesh have been in many ways inferior to and dependent on men from early childhood.  Although our constitution has given equal rights to our women, they still suffer from discrimination and violence. These discrimination and violence occur at homes, at workplaces and everywhere.

The women in our rural Bangladesh are hard working.  They perform heavy household works throughout the day.  But women’s contribution to the family income is not well-evaluated. Illiteracy is the prime barrier against women empowerment.

There are many barriers against women empowerment. Our society consists of male-based family. Many male members of the family do not like their women’s employment outside the home. Again women are compelled to work at low wages in agriculture as well as job sector. Though there are lot of plans to empowerment women, the result of materialisation is not satisfactory.

But the government of Bangladesh is keen to empower our women. To improve the literacy and education level among girls and women, fees and charges have been waived up to higher secondary level. In almost all government jobs in Bangladesh there are quotas for women. Various NGOs are providing micro-credit loan to poor women. It has a tremendous positive impact on women empowerment in our rural and urban areas. There are strict laws in places to protect women’s right. We have reserved seats for women in our Parliament and they can also compete in other seats as well. We have found women as our Prime Ministers for three consecutive (avivevwnK) terms. Even then we have to go a long way towards establishing equal rights for men and women that is women’s empowerment in Bangladesh. (Words : 303)

Employment of Women / Women’s Role From Past to Present

About fifty percent of our people are women. In the past, the employment scope for our women was very limited, but day by day it is increasing.

Earlier, women could not go out of the four walls of their homes and get themselves employed in the society. Their position in the family and in the society was much ignoble (bxP). Their jobs were only to work as mothers, wives and house keepers. They would give birth to and bring up their children.

But at present they are playing important roles in all spheres of our country. They are no longer confined within their parents’ or husbands’ houses.

Women are also contributing a lot to their families with their income. They do both their household works and work outside of their houses. They are contributing a lot to our economy and the nation. After receiving higher education and trainings, they are employed as   teachers, doctors, nurses, social workers, administrators, pilots, engineers, and so on. Many of our women are employed in our family planning and health sector. They work in rural and urban areas. Not only that a good number of women works in non-traditional jobs like mills, factories, construction works, pharmaceutics and also involves in small scale trade and business.

The lion’s share of the foreign currency in Bangladesh comes from ready-made garments industries. But these industries are mainly dependent on women. 90 percent of the garment workers are women.

However, there are still some barriers to their employment as well as self-employment sectors. There are negligence towards them, low pay for many of them and, insecurity etc.

As time goes by, the scopes for women employment and their contribution are increasing. Our government and other concerned bodies should see to all of their employment related problems and solve them. (Words : 302)

The Advancement of Science in Modern Age

Modern age is the contribution of science, needless to say. We cannot imagine our modern age without science.

Information technology has added a new speed in our communication. Internet, e-mail, telex, fax etc. have made our communication easier.

Computer is the latest invention of science. All kinds of official activities cannot be imagined without it.

Mobile phone is another very important invention of modern science. Besides communicating with others, it can be used in watching movies, enjoying audio songs, making calculation, knowing time and date, seeing ways in the dark etc. By fax one can send any writing, picture, or document over great distance very easily.

Satellite channel has added a new dimension to our entertainment. It has introduced us with different countries, the culture of different nations, international affairs and sports.

The advancement of science in medical sector is really admirable. Due to the blessing of science the rate of death has decreased and man can lead a sound life.

The invention of bus, truck and all other vehicles has developed communication sectors and also spread our trade and commerce.

We can notice the advancement of science in food processing, house-building, constructing roads, bridges etc. We can solve a complicated sum with the help of a calculator. Sewing clothes, printing of million of pages is now a matter of short time.

Like everything it has also some demerits. The invention of deadly weapons and their use in battle and war causes innumerable destruction of life and property. The misuse of internet and mobile/phone causes many unlawful and immoral activities.

In spite of having some demerits, we cannot contradict the helpful contribution of science in this modern age. Its immoral and evil side should be restricted and it should be used only for the moral and useful purpose of human being. (Words : 304)

Democracy

Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally—either directly or through elected representatives—in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. It encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination.

Democracy are of two types— direct democracy and indirect democracy. In a direct democracy the citizen of a country have the right to elect and form the government choosing their favourite candidate by voting. But in an indirect democracy citizens cannot elect their candidate directly. In this system the citizens elect a good number of representatives and then these people select their leader from amongst themselves to form the government. Bangladesh follow the direct democracy and USA follow the indirect democracy.

According to Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the USA and one of the illustrious statesmen of the world, “Democracy is a form of government of the people, by the people and for the people.”

Every citizen in a democratic state should have the opportunity to develop his personality. He must have access to knowledge, must be able to earn an adequate wage. The state must guarantee him the right to work as well as leisure. All these raise the important question of education of the citizens of a democratic state. Education must teach them to think and act freely and express their views boldly.

Without proper organization, the people cannot express themselves effectively. The leader of the party must be responsible, honest and courageous.

Given favorable conditions, democracy is the best form of government known so far. It reconciles liberty and authority; it imbues the citizens with a sense of patriotism; it aims at giving the greatest happiness to the greatest number of citizens in a state. Under the democratic form of government, human character develops and the individual realizes his best self. (Words : 309)

Bangla Wash in 2013

Bangladesh-New Zealand series was held in 2013. The people all over the Bangladesh eagerly waited to see the series. They all expected some victory but winning victory like this, where the opponent team was so strong was really unexpected by the cricket loving people of Bangladesh.

Few could imagine Bangladesh whitewashing the Kiwis 3-0, especially after New Zealand posted 300-plus in the third ODI. No matter how big the total is, how tough the opposition is, the Tigers just don’t go down without a fight. That’s how they have been able to hand two ‘Banglawashes’ in a row to New Zealand.

Just before the start of the ODI series, Bangladesh superstar Shakib Al Hasan couldn’t participate due to dengue fever. Could Bangladesh do it without Shakib was a big question. In fact, in the past, if any of Bangladesh’s main players got injured, it became quite tough to fill that gap.

But things seem to be improving on the Bangladesh bench. Naeem Al Islam filled in Shakib’s place with clinical displays, while Tamim Iqbal’s absence in the final ODI didn’t affect the team.

It was encouraging to see Bangladesh not panicking, which has been a sea change in the side’s approach in close finishes. In the past, Bangladesh have lost matches from winning positions. But this bunch of Bangladeshis seems to know how to hold their nerves, though their real test remains away from home.

Credit must be given to skipper Mushfiqur Rahim, who has proved to be the agent of this welcome change. He doesn’t fear throwing youngsters into the line of fire, and so far they have come out stronger and as match-winners.

It was a great victory by the young tigers. There is no denying the fact that this victory will encourage the young player further to play good matches. (Words : 307)

Vision 2021

Vision 2021 a framework of a future Bangladesh that reflects the hopes and aspirations of the citizens of the country for an economically inclusive and politically accountable society. The vision proposed a set of concrete measures to achieve eight indentified goals by 2021.

It ensures a democratic system where people choose their government freely and get services from it without hassle, enjoy freedom from fear and intolerance, live with dignity, where every citizen is assured of social justice, environmental protection, human rights and equal opportunities; and where the rule of law and good governance flourish.

We envision a liberal, progressive and democratic welfare state. Simultaneously we envision a Bangladesh which by 2020/2021, will be a middle income country where poverty will be drastically reduced, where our citizens will be able to meet every basic need and where development will be on fast track.

The goals of Vision 2021 are: to become a participatory democracy; to have an efficient, accountable, transparent and decentralised system of governance; to become a poverty-free middle-income country; to have a nation of healthy citizens; to develop a skilled and creative human resource; to become a globally integrated regional economic and commercial hub; to be environmentally sustainable; and to be a more inclusive and equitable society.

These goals emerged from a one-year long activism of Bangladesh civil society throughout 2006, when 15 local level dialogues were held across the country, under the title of National Election 2007: The Bangladesh Vision 2021 document was handed over to the leaders of major political parties at the Nagorik Forum organised in Dhaka on 9 December 2006.

This enshrines citizen’s aspirations as well as optimism as regards the future of Bangladesh as a country that will be built on principles of democracy, inclusiveness, justice and fairness, accountability and good governance. (Words : 303)

The Value of Punctuality in Our Life

Punctuality is considered to be the noblest of virtues. It is the mark of civilized and cultured people. It is the habit of doing things in correct time.

One of the greatest values of punctuality is that it gives discipline to life. It dispels laziness and removes our ‘take-it-easy- attitude’. A disciplined person always gets recognition and social acceptance. Therefore, punctuality can make us socially acceptable people.

Another significant merit of punctuality is that it provides ample time to do our work correctly and properly. Doing things hurriedly or haphazardly can have disastrous consequences. When we do things in time, there is every chance that they end up as fine works.

The virtue of punctuality is said to be the key to success. Look at the great world leaders who have achieved fame and success. Punctuality was their hallmark. Washington once took his secretary to task for being late. The secretary laid the blame upon his watch. Washington reported: “Then, Sir either you must get a new watch or I must get a new secretary.”

When individuals are not punctual, they cause a lot of inconvenience to others. People have to wait for them and waste their valuable time. Want of punctuality reveals want of culture and make to the person discourteous all.

History is full of cases which show that lack of punctuality has caused defeat, loss of kingdom and golden opportunities. It is said that Napoleon lost the battle of Waterloo in 1815 because one of his generals came late.

All of us are not born with the virtue of punctuality. We have to cultivate it painstakingly. Only constant, vigil and practice can implant this virtue.

It calls for great deal of sacrifice, courage to root out laziness. It demands a disciplined life. That is why, very few individuals have the virtue of punctuality. (Words : 308)

Computer as a Wonderful Gift of Science / Uses and Abuses of Computer

Computer is the greatest of the discoveries of modern science. We cannot now think of a moment without computer. It cannot work itself but can work on the basis of the commands given by the operator.

Charles Babes is called the father of modern Computer. He invented the structure of Computer at first in 1833. By following the structure of Babes, Harvard University and I.B.M company calmingly invented the modern Computer in 1944.

A Computer has/consists of five major components. They are the input unit, the output unit, the memory unit, the control unit and the arithmetic unit.

A Computer performs three functions : (1) It receives data, (2) It processes data and (3) It emits data.

Computer contributes a lot in the field of education. The students of developed countries prepare their study materials and many things by using a computer. Printing thousands of books in a very short time has become possible for it.

Computer is now being used to diagnose disease. It has invented a new process of operation as an alternative of surgery. It is also used to grind stones in normal pathological treatment. Computer is the most common media of worldwide communication. By using different functions, it is possible to communicate all over the world in a short time.

At present, business, commerce and trade cannot be thought of without computer. It is widely used to prepare document, budget and to store information. In banking section, it is almost essential. It is also used to run mills, factories and industries in the developed countries.

In spite of having so many advantages of computer, it has also some disadvantages. It weakens the eye-sight of the operator.

Computer has made a rapid change in different fields of Bangladesh. For a Digital Bangladesh, every literate person should have a basic knowledge on it. (Words : 304)

Evils of Dowry System / Dowry-A Social Curse

Dowry, a social evil, is a kind of social gift given to the bridegroom by the bride’s father. It is a social menace that compels many girls to face premature death.

At present, parents cannot think of getting their daughters married off without giving dowry. Sometimes parents of educated and well-established boys demand dowry both in cash and kind. Often they demand a lot of money from brides’ fathers as capital investment to start trades for their sons. They demand dowry also to maintain social status.

Dowry system is a curse which makes the brides the victims of regular torture. The bridegrooms oppress the brides both mentally and physically if dowry is not given according to the verbal contract. Social prejudices influence the bridegrooms to dominate and exploit the parents of brides unduly. Both families and women are the victim of the evil dowry system.

Dowry system creates greed, corruption, terrorism, malice, other malpractices and psychological abnormalities in husbands. In case of the failure of giving dowry the wives are tortured brutally and rebuked to bring costly furniture, vehicle, jewellery and more money. Sometimes wives are burnt and strangled to death. Sometimes they cannot stand physical and mental torture and commit suicide.

Dowry is a heavy burden on the poor parents to bear. This system makes women the daily commodities which can be bought and sold. Thus the social status of women is lowered. To manage dowry for their daughters, the poor parents take loans on a high rate of interest, indulge in corruption and stealing.

Bold steps and concerted efforts are necessary for eradicating this social curse. The authority should take drastic measure against the persons who are indulged in crimes and unlawful system. Severe and exemplary punishment has to be inflicted on the persons indulged in taking dowry. (Words : 302)

World Heritage Sites in Bangladesh

A World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance. While each World Heritage Site remains part of the legal territory of the state where in the site is located, UNESCO considers it in the interest of the international community to preserve each site. There are three world heritage sites in Bangladesh: the Shat Gombuj Mosque, the Somapura Vihara and the Sundarbans.

The Shat Gombuj Mosque is a 15th century Islamic edifice. It is situated in the suburbs of Bagerhat, some 175 km southwest of Dhaka. The Mosque is unique in that it has sixty pillars, which support seventy-seven exquisitely curved domes. The mausoleum of the city’s founder, Khan Jahan Ali can be found nearby.

The Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur, 200 kilometres northwest of Dhaka, was founded in the 7th century. It is the largest single Buddhist monastery in the Indian subcontinent and is also known as the Somapura Mahavira. It was a renowned intellectual centre from the 7th century until the 17th century. Its layout is perfectly adapted to its religious function. This monastery city represents a unique artistic achievement which has influenced Buddhist architecture as far away as Cambodia.

The Sundarbans are one of the largest remaining areas of mangroves in the world. It also has exceptional biodiversity, notably about 400 Bengal tigers. Its ever changing landscape is shaped by tidal shifts, rivers and creeks. The Sundarbans are badged as “The largest mangrove belt in the world, the habitat of the famous Royal Bengal Tiger.”

We are proud that we have three World Heritage Sites though our country is a small one. With the declaration of these as World Heritage Sites, it is hoped that this beautiful architectural monument and forest will be preserved from further decay. (Words : 299)

My Favourite Game (Football) / The Game You Like most

Football is my favourite game. I like it most, because it is full of thrill and excitement. Football is an international game. It was first played in England. It is now played all over the world. In our country, both students and non-students take great interest in this game.

Football is an outdoor game. It is played all over the world.

Football is played in a large field. The field is 110 to 120 yards long and 70 to 80 yards wide. There are two goalposts at each of the opposite ends of the field. These are eight yards apart and have a bar on them eight feet above the ground.

Football is played between two teams of eleven players on each side. There are one goalkeeper, four backs, two links and four forwards on each side. A ball is placed at the centre of the field. When the referee blows the whistle to start the game, the ball is kicked off. When the ball is kicked off, the players try to send it into the net through the goalposts of their opposite party. Only the goalkeeper can touch the ball with his hands. Other players can only kick the ball but they cannot touch it with their hands.

This game is highly exciting. Both the teams try their best to send the ball through the opposite goalposts. The team which can score more goals is said to win the game.

Football is a good form of exercise. It makes our body strong and hardy. It also teaches us discipline, brotherhood and team spirit. Besides, we get fresh entertainment by playing it. So it is my favourite game. (Words : 278)

 

Life of a Garment Worker

Garment workers are the valuable resources who are contributing to the national economy of Bangladesh to a great extent. Though their contribution is great, they lead a very pathetic and miserable life with the scanty (Aí) amount of wages that they are given.

They start their life as a garment worker due to poverty. As most of them are illiterate, they are unaware about their welfare.

Very early in the morning they can be found in our city streets on their way to garment factories. Most of the time they are seen in a hurry as they have to compensate (†LmviZ) for being little late. At lunch time some of them take their tiffin brought from home and some may have a piece of loaf bought from nearby shops. There they have to work for a long time in an unhygienic (A¯^v¯’¨Ki) environment.

Garments workers work from 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. Sometimes they have to work the whole night. With the small amount of income, they have to maintain their family.

For all these reasons they suffer from malnutrition (cywónxbZv) and other diseases. Besides, they become victim of social humiliation and harassment. They are looked down upon by the other members of the society.

Sometimes they are faced many kinds of accident such as- fire, earthquake, collapse of etc. and lost lives untimely. The owner of the garment factories are careless about the safety of their workers. That is why often a good number of garment workers die for the want of proper building structure and life supporting things.

Considering their role in our economy, their life standard should be upgraded. Their security should be ensured. It is paradoxical (cÖ‡nwjKvi gZ) that they support us with clothes but their own clothes are torn (†Quov). So by caring for them we can get the best out of them. (Words : 301)

Influence of Western Culture

Civilizations do meet and even merge but never has such an impact been witnessed as the impact of the west on Bangladesh. The impact has been so great and so deep that, wherever we go, we notice only western modes and we are for a moment set to wonder if we are in Bangladesh or in some western country.

To find western impact on Bangladesh we do not have to go far to seek. Our food, and food habits, our dresses, our dances, our songs, our music, our life style are all of the western pattern. The height of it is seen when see that, a person who can communicate in English is known to be smarter than a person who cannot.

It implies that, not only have we taken to western styles, we also admire only them who follow the western styles, in comparison to those who follow the Bangladeshi styles.

We, the Bangladeshis have a rich culture. Historically our culture is indispensable in our everyday life. But it is a matter of sorrow that we are gradually losing our norms and customs. Our young generation enjoys foreign programs with great attraction ignoring our own cultural programs. Not only that our young generation as well as other take western food ignoring our traditional food.

This shows that, we have got independence from the British only physically and politically but, mentally and culturally the onslaught on Bangladesh has not been complete.

Experts believe that if this situation continues further, our young generation will completely forget our own culture and tradition and the social stability will be crushed.

In my view, it is good to learn whatever is good anywhere, but, we must learn to sort out what is good in us. If we do this we can have the best of all – and that is what an intelligent person or community should be doing. (Words : 314)

Corruption in Bangladesh

Corruption is a much talked issue with its devastating role in socio-cultural area of our country at present.

Corruption means taking or giving undue advantage / facility to somebody usually in the form of some exchange. Almost all the sections of our country are riddled with different categories of corruption like bribery (Nyl †`Iqv ev †bIqv), misappropriation of public resources, nepotism (¯^RbcÖxwZ), favoritism, gift giving, cheating, fraud, dishonesty, intellectual corruption etc. which we need to remove in order to develop our country.

The causes of corruption are many. Greed, selfishness, worldliness, ill motive, irresponsibility, lack of patriotism and mostly the lack of punishment of the corrupt people in our society are responsible for widespread corruption in Bangladesh.

Transparency International has ranked Bangladesh as one of the most corrupt countries of the world. Actually, corruption has become a barrier to our national growth, foreign investment and over all development of the country. Most of the funds for poverty alleviation are being misappropriated and people are being deprived. Due to this, a lot of national resources are being exhausted and Bangladesh is still enlisted as a least developed country.

Usually the big guns of society, the politicians are involved in corruption. As a result, the distance between the rich, elite, and the poor, common masses is widening. And the poor, common mass become more poor and fail to cope up with the present situation.

To fight against corruption all classes of people should come forward. Anti-corruption campaigns should be launched to create a moral ground against it. Independent anti-corruption commission should be given enough power to file and proceed corruption cases. Statement of the wealth and properties of important persons particularly govt. employees and other commercially important persons must be updated and fairly verified. By raising patriotic zeal (†`‡ki Rb¨ Mfxi Abyf‚wZ) among the people and upgrading their moral values, this disease can be removed from the society. (Words : 309)

Gender Discrimination

Gender discrimination means having discriminatory (c¶cvZ) attitude towards male and female. In our society females are deprived of and neglected in every sphere of life. They are often victims of exploitation (†kvlY), torture and murder. This happens because of the gender discrimination or disparity (ˆelg¨) for which mostly the females are responsible. It is one of the main barriers to the socio-economic development of the country.

Poverty, illiteracy, ignorance and superstition can be attributed to gender discrimination. This discrimination is observed in different spheres of women life. Actually, it takes its shape from the very beginning of a girl’s life i.e. the birth of a girl is not welcomed cordially. Besides, parents show their indifference to educate them. The money that is spent for their education is treated as wastage. On the other hand, a male child is taken proper care, food and nutrition. They are supposed to support the family economically and female children are given in marriage early.

Moreover, girls are not usually allowed to go out of home without the parents’ permission and male escort. They grow up in a kind of confinement within four walls. They are assigned to household works. They do not get the opportunity to flourish their latent talent.

But we must realize that both male and female members of the society are equally important for the development of a country. By undermining their potentialities we are actually lagging behind. We all have to come forward to raise consciousness among the people about the role of women in the development activity. Moreover, pragmatic (ev¯@egyLx) steps should be taken to upgrade their economic condition. With this end in view we all have to come forward to remove every kind of social bars that stand in the way of the advancement of the women folks of our society. (Words : 301)

Causes of Students’ Failure in English

In this age of globalization the importance of learning English is beyond question. To be in line with the competitive world, efficiency in English is mostly needed. But unfortunately, most of the students of our country are not good in English.

The main reason behind the failure of English is that English is a foreign language. Students are unwilling (Awb”QyK) to learn it. Besides, these students are afraid of facing it in exam. Most of the time they cram without understanding the topics. Moreover, lack of efficient teachers and lack of standard education are also responsible for this failure.

Another most important reason is that the textbooks in different classes are not harmonious with the standard of the learners. Again the faulty motto of the questions persuades the students to run after the so called touch and pass system.

Immediate measures should be taken to save our students from the disgrace of failing in English. To have a command of English one has to develop an interest in learning it and in this regard trained teachers can play a significant role. The mentality of cramming the answers instead of learning it should be changed. Learning grammar, enriching vocabulary, speaking to people, listening, reading topics in English and writing are important to learn English.

Teachers should be properly trained to attract the students to learn English by removing the fearfulness about it. The students should also emphasized listening to and watching English programmes on radio and television regularly. It will increases their vocabulary knowledge and make them able to speaking English.

Harmonious textbook to the standard of the classes is also needed to solve the problem. Above all students’ self will to learn English and teachers’ devotion to teach it sincerely and interestingly can help to get rid of this problem of failing in English. (Words : 303)

Women’s Contribution to the Development of the Country

Women’s contribution in every sphere of development process is becoming important day by day. As women constitute half of the total population, they are playing a significant role in nation building and socio-economic development of the country. In this regard, our national and rebel Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam uttered, ‘What are great in this world, half has been done by woman half by man.’

If they get congenial (AbyK‚j) atmosphere, they can provide very useful service to the various areas of the society. So outlook towards the women should be changed.

Initially, women were confined to domestic chores and their contribution to household affairs was hardly evaluated. But now they are occupying important positions in different government and non-government jobs. They are serving as administrators, doctors, engineers, law enforcing officers or staff, bankers, teachers etc. They are not only home makers now but also adding to family income by gaining economic independence.

Now, women are preparing themselves for competing with the male. They are now enjoying their fundamental rights. But it is a matter of great regret that a number of women in our country have to face a lot of social and religious bindings.

Proper education and awareness of women’s rights can bring for them more success and glory. By joining wide range of professions, they have proved their worth. The contributions of women in different sectors have been well-appreciated. Specially their contribution in the garments sector is noteworthy. Now most of the conspicuous (`„wó AvKl©K) changes in our country are impossible without the participation of women.

So, proper environment for work should be ensured to make them more committed to work. Gender discrimination should be eradicated (wejyß Kiv) for the betterment of the country. In this regard, Government and all classes of people should come forward to involve both male and female members of the society for the greater benefit of the country. (Words : 313)

Discipline

Discipline means obeying certain rules and principles in any event or phase of life.

Discipline is the root of success in life. It helps men to live in peace and happiness. It forms the basis of all the virtues. Without discipline no one can make progress in life.

Man is a social being. He cannot live alone. He has to live in society and the state. One cannot do whatever one likes. He/she has to abide by some rules and regulations. Maintaining these rules and regulation lead him/her to the goals of life.

Nature shows us a great discipline. The sun, the moon, the earth, the stars, the milky-ways and all other planets are moving in their own orbit (K¶c_) in a disciplined way. They do not come in collision with one another. We can learn the importance of discipline from these.

Starting from personal life to the national or international life discipline is important. An indiscipline life is full of problem and chaos. Student life is the best period to build the habit of discipline. Students must attend school in right time and obey the rules of school. They have to abide by the orders of the teachers. The teachers cannot teach the students and the students cannot learn their lessons if there is no discipline.

Discipline is very necessary in the playground. A player has to show respect to the decision of the referee or the umpire. Discipline is strictly followed in the army or in the battle field. It is the key to success of the army. Discipline must be maintained and practised in the family. This should be cultivated in the early childhood of boys and girls.

Discipline is the most important condition of success in life. It gives some order and system in the activities of life and ultimately takes us to the peak of success. Without discipline nobody can shine and no nation can prosper. (Words : 321)

Physical Exercise

Physical exercise is very essential for keeping good health. There is a proverb – ‘Health is wealth.’ There is no alternative to physical exercise to achieve this wealth. Physical exercise means systematic and regulated movement of the limbs of our body. We should be careful about physical exercise from our very childhood.

There are different kinds of physical exercise. The most common items of physical exercise are walking, swimming, cycling, rowing, riding, wrestling and so on. All forms of physical exercise are not suitable for people of all ages. Besides, different kinds of games like football, cricket, hockey etc. also belong to physical exercise. We should take any of these exercises if we want to make the body and the mind strong and healthy.

We should take our exercise at right time. After meal no exercise should be taken. It must not be taken in an empty stomach either. So, we should be aware of all these matters. Morning is the best time for physical exercise. Some exercise can be taken in the evening too.

Physical exercise keeps the limbs of our body in a perfect condition. It makes our muscles strong and body active. It also helps the proper circulation of blood and improves digestion of food. It builds our personality. It provides us with energy and keeps us tension free. It helps a student to a great extent. It helps him to concentrate his mind to his studies. It is very helpful for sound sleep. There is a maxim, “A sound mind lives in a sound body.” So, it is imperative to take physical exercise so as to keep our body fit.

A strong and manly body is the outcome of years of exercise. Student life is the time when care should be taken in this respect. We should take physical exercise regularly. If we do so, our bodily organs can function properly. Then we can remain free from diseases (†ivM). Thus, we can preserve good health. It gives us a feeling of joy and cheerfulness. (Words : 314)

Floods in Bangladesh

Though Bangladesh is a darling child of Nature, she falls a victim to floods every year. The fact is that she is a riverine country and is situated in the monsoon area. Moreover, she has lower land. That’s why flood visits here now and then and increases our sufferings terribly. But it does a little good to us.

We know the causes of floods. Heavy rainfall (cÖPzi e„wócvZ) is the main cause of flood in our country. There is much rain in Bangladesh in the rainy season. This rain water (e„wói cvwb) fills (c–Y© K‡i) the rivers and canals (Lvj) of our country. So the rivers and canals cannot hold (a‡i ivL‡Z cv‡i bv) much water. It causes flood. Not only that, catastrophic flood may be caused by cyclones and tidal bores in the seas. Sometimes heavy down fall of water due to the melting of snow on mountains is also responsible for floods.

Many dangerous diseases such as cholera, typhoid, dysentery, skin diseases etc. break out. As a result, many people die unnaturally.

Everything has both good and bad sides. Similarly, flood has some good effects on us. During floods rivers carry a lot of silts that make our land fertile. As a result, we find good crops after floods. Moreover, it also wash away garbage, dust and make our environment clean.

There are severe bad effects (weiƒc cÖwZwµqv) of floods. Floods wash away our crops (km¨), cattle etc. People become homeless. Many cattle die, communication system (†hvMv‡hvM e¨e¯’v) is destroyed (aŸsm nq). People use boat to go here and there (GLv‡b-†mLv‡b †h‡Z).

The effects of floods beggar description. People cannot feed (LvIqv‡Z cv‡i bv) their animals. Sometimes epidemic (gnvgvwi) and famine (`ywf©¶) break out (†`Lv †`q).  People suffer for the want of pure drinking water. The price (`vg) of necessary goods increases.

Flood is a threat (ûgwK) to us. We should take proper steps to stop this. We need to build dams (Rjvavi) and barrages (euva) to prevent flood. (Words : 300)

Seasons in Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, there are six seasons such as summer, the rainy season, early autumn, late autumn, winter and spring. These seasons come one after another in a regular cycle. Each season has its own beauty and features. They decorate Bangladesh with special characteristics.

Summer is the first season of the year. It consists of the months of Baishakh and Jaistha. During this period the days are longer than the nights. It is the warmest season of the year. Fruits of different kinds and sizes such as mango, lichi and jackfruit ripen during this season.

After summer comes rain to drench everything on earth. It comprises the months of Ashar and Sravan. Due to heavy and continual rains rivers, ponds, canals, beels, fields, etc. are full to the brim. We get plenty of fishes in this season. Crops, plants and trees grow rapidly.

The rainy season is followed by the early autumn. It consists of Bhadra and Aswin. In this time the sky gets clear and the moon-light comes with all its sweetness.

Then comes the late autumn with dews. It consists of Kartik and Agrahayan. It is the harvesting season. It is neither hot nor cold.

Then comes the winter with its fog, mist and cold. It consists of Poush and Magh. The sky remains cloudless and looks blue. In this time we get different kinds of fresh vegetables and it is the season of different kinds of cake, date juice.

Last of all comes the spring. It consists of Falgoon and Chaitra. During this season countless varieties of flowers bloom and make the whole atmosphere delightful with their sweet fragrance. Each season has its own features and characteristics – its special crops, vegetables, fruits and flowers. All these seasons have given our motherland an uncommon scenic beauty and novelty. (Words : 299)

Problems of Illiteracy in Bangladesh

Illiteracy means complete inability to read and write. This illiteracy is a social curse. It is the root of ignorance, superstition and backwardness.

Most people in Bangladesh are illiterate. 68% of the population is deprived of minimum education despite compulsory primary education. Our national life is retarded and beset with innumerable problems—problems created by illiteracy and superstitions. The poverty-stricken people dishearten their children to take education rather they engage their children for craning. As our farmers are illiterate, they cannot grow more production because they are unaware of the latest technical instrument. Not only in agriculture but also in mills, factories we cannot get proper output due to illiterate, non skilled workers. In fact, it is responsible for poor health and bad sanitary condition.

It is the spirit of education that can help to eradicate the curse of illiteracy. It is the duty of every Govt. to remove illiteracy from the grass root level.

At present education has been made compulsory up to primary level. But lots of children can’t go to primary schools because they have to work for their families. Besides, a large number of boys and girls are compelled to give up education after free primary level. So they forget very soon what they have learnt.

There should be adequate arrangement for education. Night schools must be set up. In addition Radio and TV can play a vital role in this regard. Students, teachers, youngmen, women and other responsible persons of the society can do voluntary services to teach the illiterate people and can make them feel the importance of the education.

In fine, illiteracy is a fundamental problem in our country. In order to give our development program a permanent shape, there is no alternative to eradicating this problem as early as possible. (Words : 302)

The Value of Leisure

Leisure means time without any burden of the daily works. It is time when one is free. In some particular hours of the day or some particular days of the week we can get leisure. Different people spend leisure in different ways. Of course, leisure has a great value on our physical and mental sound health. Without leisure life becomes dull and monotonous.

We all believe in the necessity of works. But the works without rest hamper the quality of the works as well as it tires the man.

Leisure, in fact, brings a welcome relief (gyw³). It gives freshness to our mind and recreates our energy.

Work is good, it is obligatory (eva¨Zvg–jK) also because no man can live without work for a living. Over work is really harmful. ‘All work and no play makes jack a dull boy,’ says the proverb.

Leisure is no indolence (Avjm¨/kªgwegyLZv), but a change for more congenial (AbyK‚j) occupation. The more important thing is that one must know how to use it properly. An average man would seek (†LuvRv) an escape (cjvqb/gyw³) from the busy atmosphere of work into an open air life. He/she may also have a pleasant hobby of gardening, riding, rowing, sport, painting or listening to music.

People living in villages and cities spend their leisure differently. Most of the male persons in villages spend their time in tea stalls talking among themselves. Female persons gather in one place, talk frankly. But in cities, People usually watch television. They visit zoos, Parks and other remarkable places.

However, a life without leisure is a life without pleasure. A man who cannot spare (evowZ wn‡m‡e e¨e¯’v Kiv) the time for a holiday or afford (mvg_©©¨ _vKv) to enjoy the various sorts of beauty of nature, his life is surely unfortunate. So we should avail (Kv‡R jvMv‡bv/ mبenvi Kiv) leisure and utilize it for our physical and mental peace and happiness. (Words : 303)

Celebration of International Mother Language Day

21st February is our Mother Language Day. It is a memorable day in the national history of Bangladesh. It turned into the International Mother Language Day when it was recognized by the UNESCO on the 17th November, 1999. It has become a red letter day in the world culture.

The day has a historical background. The then Governor General of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah said in the Curzon Hall, “Urdu and Urdu shall be the state language of Pakistan.” This declaration raised the storm of protest in the mind of the people and the students of East Pakistan. This gave birth to the movements against the Pakistani aggressors.

On 21st February 1952 the desperate Bangalees or Bangladeshis advanced with determination amidst firing and lathi charge. In this movement Salam, Barkat, Rafiq, Shaflq and Jabbar sacrificed their holy lives for the cause of the mother tongue. Understanding the gravity of the situation the then ruling class recognized Bangla as a separate language for the Bangalees or Bangladeshis in the then East Pakistan (Bangladesh).

The national flag on the day is kept hoisting at half mast everywhere. People put garlands of flowers on the altar of the Shaheed Minar. The people organize social gatherings, where they honour their language and culture and hold literary competitions, draw Alpana on the roads, eat festive meals and listen to event themed songs ”Amar Bhaiyer Rokte Rangano Ekushey February”

Condolence meetings are held before it. People deliver speeches and offer fateha for the salvation of the departed souls who sacrificed their lives for the mother tongue in 1952. TV and Radio channels put up special programmes. International Mother Language Day is now celebrated throughout the world including Asia, Europe, America, Africa, Oceania etc.

We, the Bangladeshis, are grateful to the UNESCO for this noble and worldwide declaration.
(Words : 300)

Duties to Parents

Parents are the special gifts of God for the children. Their love for the children is neither measurable nor comparable. So we have some duties to our parents. Our duties to them are sacred and next to God.

Parents are the only persons through whom we can see the light of the world. They bring us up with their best care and affection. They always look for our good and welfare as long as they live. They are ready to make any sacrifice—even their lives for us. So it is our bounden duty to obey and respect them. They are our best guides. We should also try our best to make them happy. In our boyhood we should obey them. It will please them. If we are disobedient, they will be sorry. When we are grown up we should follow their advice, because they are our best well-wishers. When they are old we should look after them and care for their good food, clothing and health. It is our utmost duty to look after them in their last days. They cannot earn anymore. Then they need both financial and mental support from their children. The children should become the asset of their parents at that stage and should bear the burden of nursing and caring. If they are pleased, Allah will also be pleased with us and bless us.

We may find many examples of unique obedience to parents from the life of great men like Hazrat Abdul Kadir Zilani, Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar, litte boy Bayazid etc.

We cannot repay a particle of our debt to our parents. But we can easily please them with our obedience, responsibility, love and respect to them. If the children all over the world obey their parents, 1 think, the world would be a peaceful heaven. (Words : 302)

The TV Programme I Enjoyed Most

I have many favourite TV programs. Of them I like ‘Ityadi’ most. ‘Ityadi’ is broadcast on BTV. Its duration is one hour. This is a magazine program. This is basically a social satirical program with entertainment.

‘Ityadi’ has been being broadcast for more than 25 years. It is one of the longest running shows on Bangladesh Television. This proves the popularity of this program among all sorts of people in Bangladesh and abroad. Hanif Sonket is the designer, director and presenter of ‘Ityadi’. He shows mini dramatic sketch, songs, dance, quiz contest, documentary report, letters from the audience, interview etc. Ityadi also helps to promote Bengali culture among the young generation in age of cultural diversity due to globalization. It also brings many intellectual persons in music, drama or education into light.

Hanif Sonket upholds many bad practices and social evils in his program. Hanif actually gives mild slap to the worst people in the society. Thus ‘Ityadi’ serves the purpose of public awareness.

Hanif Sonket shows some exclusive documentary reports on different extra-ordinary performances from selective people throughout the country. The people who have talents but cannot flourish because of poverty or lack of scope get chance to show their charisma in the ‘Ityadi’.

The reports on the foreigners and foreign historical places are really excellent. Hanif Sonket gives Bangla dialogues to some selected parts of English films which become very comical and entertaining. Besides, he introduces many famous historical places that are very enjoyable and knowledgeable.

Actually ‘Ityadi’ is favourite for many reasons. It gives sharp entertainment as well as lesson to the audience. Behind every item of ‘Ityadi’ there is a specific purpose. The purpose is creating social awareness of the people. Ityai always shows something different from any other TV program in Bangladesh. So ‘Ityadi’ is my favourite TV program. (Words : 304)

Punctuality in Student Life

Punctuality is essential in every walk of life. For students it is a great blessing. It is quite akin (m`„k) to regularity which means working as per rules, regulations and programme of time.

Punctuality does not grow in one day. It is a continuous process of learning. The habit of punctuality is to be formed in one’s childhood. So, parents should be very careful of the habit of building punctuality to the children. The practice of every good habit in right time makes one possible to glorify the world.

Punctuality is useful to all classes of people. Student life is the best period to build up the habit of punctuality. A punctual student learns his lessons in time and therefore finds no difficulty in the examination. He never lags behind in the class. The teachers cannot teach the students and the students cannot properly consume their lesson if there is no punctuality. In hospitals, punctuality can make all the differences, of course between life and death.

Time is very valuable for us. We can save it only by punctuality. You never face any difficulty so far as time is concerned. You get, respect and admiration of all who work with you and you are an asset. Everybody likes to work with such a lovely man. On the contrary, an unpunctual man sees himself in a stage of darkness as days pass and is gradually filled with despair. He generally inconveniences to others and is most of the time a liability.

Punctuality helps us in our progress. It also saves money in other ways. There is a saying, ‘A stitch in time saves nine.’ So, if we take our food punctually, we will never be sick and so we will never have to spend money on medicines and doctors.

Punctuality is the secret of success and happiness in life. So, we all should practise to build up this quality. (Words : 314)

Dignity of labour

The dignity of labour, also known as the dignity of work, is the philosophy that all types of jobs are respected equally and no occupation is considered superior. Labour refers to mental and physical efforts to accomplish (m¤•v`b Kiv) something. It is related to one’s success and name in the world. Though one’s occupation for his or her livelihood involve physical work or mental labour, it is held that the job carries dignity compared to the jobs that involved more intellect than body.

If we show true respect to labour, we are sure to succeed in life.

Labour is of two kinds– physical and mental. Physical labour is known as manual (n¯@PvwjZ) labour. This kind of labour is the toughest form of labour. Mental labour refers to works done by our intelligence and mental activities. It is the most valuable kind of labour.

The prosperity of individual depends on proper toil, plan and performance. Actually, none can succeed in life without putting importance on working hard.

Some think that physical labour is shameful. But they are wrong. All should bear in mind that there is nothing abominable (N„Y¨) in any work.

History shows that all the great men of the world hence succeeded in life for their hard work. Napoleon, Aristotle, Plato, Alexander, Hazrat Mohammad (Sm) all had no negligence in doing their works. So they succeeded in life.

In the foreign countries, even the students are allowed to do part time work in hotels, factories, mills etc. Thus they get extra income for their study and necessary things. Coolies are seldom found in the railway stations of those foreign countries, people themselves do the jobs of the coolies.

Labour makes oneself confident and brings wealth. It brings greatness to those who can undergo (AwZµg Kiv) it properly. We all should have positive approach to labour in order to succeed in life. (Words : 305)

Eve Teasing

Eve teasing is a typical social crime. In recent time, the preoccupied buzz word of the society is ‘Eve teasing’. The term ‘Eve teasing’ refers to sexual harassment (nqivwb) on women in short sense. In larger sense, this term means all kinds of harassment done to female community.

The problem of Eve teasing received public and media attention in far 1960s. But in the following decades (`kK), it grew to an alarming state in the subcontinent.

The victims of Eve teasing are basically the school and college going girl students and university and even the female service holders. As more and more women gradually started going out to colleges and work independently, the rate of oppression and psychological torture is getting higher.

Many believe that it is the clothing of women that elicits such heinous behavious, but the sad truth is that even conservatively dressed muslim women who wear a burqa over their clothes leaving only the eyes and feet visible are subjected to it.

There are many reasonable causes behind Eve teasing. The notable termed causes are the deterioration of social, cultural, familial and moral values. In a male dominated society, the lack of respect for women folk, the tendency to use them as the object of consummation are the prefactors that result in Eve teasing. Women are not free from guilt. Their use of indecent dress, reckless roaming in every place in inhibited time make them victimized.

Government as well as law enforcing agencies can come forward to eradicate Eve teasing. The practice of decent culture, moral values, to arrange employment scope to the unemployed can also remove Eve teasing from society. The families who have young boys and girls can play an effective role in this case.

To make a disciplined and secure society, we all should attempt to resist this bad practice. The government should take proper step to remove it. (Words : 305)

Global Warming

One of the biggest problems facing the world is that our production of carbon dioxide and  other greenhouse gases is having a heating on the atmosphere, and this could be very dangerous for human life.

Global warming means the increase in the average temperature of the earth’s near-surface air and atmosphere. It has been a very important issue all over the world. Many problems could result from global warning. One of the biggest problems is rising of sea level. This could result in the flooding of low lying coastal areas and cities such as Egypt, the Netherlands and Bangladesh. Some countries might even disappear completely.

Global surface temperature has increased 0.18 °C during the last century. Temperature increase since the mid 20th century was caused for increasing concentrations (Nbxfeb) of greenhouse gases. These gases are mainly created by various human activities such as fossil fuel burning, deforestation etc. One natural cause is release of methane gas from wet lands.

Another major man-made cause of global warming is over population. More people mean more food, and more transports. It also means more CO2, methane etc. because there will be more burning of fossil fuels and more agriculture.

The effects of global warming include Arctic shrinkage, Arctic methane release, releases of global carbon, methane release, sea level rise and so on. It is causing more rainfall and floods in many areas, droughts, extreme climate incidents, and changes in climate patterns.

Some regions and sectors are in great risks for this. Low-lying and less-developed countries and areas are at the greatest risk of global warming. Adaptation potential for biological and geophysical (f‚-c`v_©we`¨v wfwËK) systems is estimated to be lower than of human health.

In conclusion, if we make small changes now in the way we live, we can avoid huge changes in the future. Scientists, governments and individuals must work together to overcome this threat. (Words : 316)

Rights and Duties of a Citizen

Rights and duties of citizens have become very important issue in modern times. Every citizen has right to know what his rights are. Since right implies duties, the citizens also have to be aware of their duties towards the state. The citizens enjoy certain rights and at the same time they are expected to perform their duties to the society and to the state.

Citizen means a person who has all rights as a member of a country either by birth or given such rights by a state. This is a valued status which ensures certain rights to an individual in a state. These rights are known as basic rights.

A citizen has freedom of speech and freedom of forming association. So he can express his opinion and form or join any association for political and cultural needs.

The citizen will enjoy the basic rights sanctioned by the state and at the same time, will perform the duties towards the state. He has to play an important role in the maintenance of his state. He should try to do the public good. He should control his conduct in the light of the good of his country. He should respect law of road and the like. He should have patriotism and fellow-feeling. He must be ready to pay the taxes due for him under the constitution. He must keep the state interest above all other things.

Good citizens are an asset of a state. But there are some citizens who are selfish. They just think about their own sake. If all the citizens do not come forward to contribute to build up their nation, it is impossible to develop the poor condition of the country. So we should come forward to make our nation an ideal one. (Words : 306)

FIFA World Cup – 2014

The FIFA World Cup 2014 was the 20th FIFA World Cup. It was played in Brazil. The tournament took place at twelve venues across the country. It was the second time that Brazil has hosted the competition, the first being in 1950.

The tournament started with a magnificent opening ceremony at Brasilia Stadium, Sao Paolo on 12 June 2014. It concluded on 13 July with the Championship match at Maracana Stadium, Rio de Janeiro. Germany won the tournament, defeating runners-up Argentina by 1-0 in the final match. Brazil, the host country, got the fourth place.

Thirty one national football teams advanced through qualifying competitions that began in June 2011 to participate with host nation Brazil in the final tournament. A total of 64 matches were being played in twelve cities across Brazil. For the first time at a World Cup final, match officials used goal-line technology as well as vanishing foam for free kicks.

All world champion teams since the first World Cup in 1930 – Brazil, Germany, Italy, Argentina, England, France, Uruguay and Spain – qualified for this competition. The defending champion Spain was eliminated at the group stage, along with previous winners England and Italy. Germany was the first European team to win a World Cup in the Americas. This result marked for the first time that sides from the same continent had won three successive World Cups (following Italy in 2006 and Spain in 2010).

In the tournament, 171 goals (2.67) per match were scored. James Rodriguez, a Colombian star was the top scorer with 6 goals. Argentine sensation Lionel Messi was elected as the best player of the tournament. French young star Paul Pogba was elected the best young player. German player Manuel Neuer won the golden gloves as the best goalkeeper.

During the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the FIFA Fan Fest in the host cities received 5 million people and the country received 1 million foreigners from 202 countries. (Words : 314)

Population growth hampers development

Though population is an asset of a country, excessive population is a curse. Bangladesh is a small country having an area of about 1,47570 square kilometers but has a large population more than 15 crore. The growth rate of population is 1.38% while the density is 1040 per square km. So, Bangladesh is a densely populated country. At the same time, it is a poor country. About half of its total population live below the poverty line while one third below absolute poverty.

The rapid growth of population is the main cause of poverty in Bangladesh. The rate is so high that no development programmes can keep pace with it. Our limited land is being divided and subdivided because of alarming growth rate of population. The building of new houses is reducing our cultivable land. It reduces the production of agricultural crops. So, on one hand, the population is growing, on the other hand, food production is decreasing.

Our job opportunities are not enough for our huge population. So, the number of unemployed people is increasing. This situation is creating a negative effect to the per capita income of the people of the country. That’s why the standard of living of the people is going down.

The present economic condition of Bangladesh can hardly provide the additional people with additional things. This situation will worsen if the present growth of population goes on unchecked. So population growth must be kept down by adopting the various measures of population control. The government has taken some necessary steps to reduce the poverty of the country. Besides, the NGOs and donor countries are also implementing poverty alleviation programmes through various ways. But all these programmes are being hampered by the rapid growth of population. So, for the betterment of the country, we should control the rapid growth rate of population. (Words : 308)

Modern civilization is the gift of science

We are living in modern civilization. All the elements that have made our civilization modern are the invention of science. So, I agree with the statement that modern civilization is the gift of science. Modern people cannot pass a single day without the help of scientific tools and machines.

Whatever we perform from morning till we go to bed, we use tools made by science. Science has made our life easy and comfortable. Information technology has added a new speed in our communication. Internet, fax, telex etc have made our communication easier. Computer is one of the greatest inventions of science. Saving documents and file, drafting them, printing picture, watching movie, television etc. can be done by computer. It can save valuable record and uncountable official documents and reports.

Mobile phone is another important invention of modern science. Besides communicating with others it can be used in watching movies, enjoying audio songs, making calculation, knowing time and date etc. Because of having no wire and for its small size it is very easy to carry. Besides, satellite channel has introduced us with different countries, culture, international affairs and sports.

The invention of plane, bus, truck and other vehicles has developed our communication sectors. They have also spread our trade and commerce. Besides, due to the blessing of science the rate of death has decreased, man can lead a sound life.

Like everything it has also some demerits. The invention of deadly weapons and their use in battle and war causes innumerable destruction of life and property. The misuse of internet and mobile phone causes many unlawful and immoral activities.

In spite of having some demerits, we cannot contradict the helpful contribution of science in this modern age. If we treat science in proper way, it will be a great blessing for our modern civilization. (Words : 304)

Rural life is better than urban life

I completely agree with the statement that rural life is better than urban life. It is true that rural life is deprived of modern facilities. There are no easy means of transport, good educational institutions or hospitals. Despite all these disadvantages, I like rural life more than urban life.

Village or rural life is the gift of nature. There are green corn fields, flowers and trees all around. There are small rivers, canals, beels, haors and ponds. Village people are very friendly, co-operative, simple-minded and frank. They are also generous and hospitable. They share their joys with others. One comes forward to help other who is in distress. Most of them are illiterate but they lead a simple and honest life.

In the cities, life is very busy and competitive. People live in polluted environment. The suffer a lot. On the other hand, in the villages, environment is very fresh and hygienic. People are generous there. In the cities, people lead a very artificial life in the big buildings. But in the villages, one can lead a simple life in the lap of nature. One gets pure water, fresh fruit and vegetables, fish, milk etc. Village life is free from hustle and bustle. Pollution is much less than that in town life. There is absolute peace and quietness.

In village life, social values still prevail. The older people show love and affection to the younger ones and the young people respect their seniors. Various traditional festivals such as ‘Nabanna Utsab’, ‘Pitha Utsab’, ‘Halkhata’, ‘Fair’ etc. are observed in the village. Different types of pitha are made during the winter to entertain the relatives and guests. Rural life and urban life are totally different from each other. Considering everything, I think that rural life is better than urban life. (Words : 300)

Equal rights for women

Women have demanded equal rights for themselves in all aspects of their lives as in the voting system, in business and even in the home. Almost half of the world’s population is women. So, if we neglect and deprive women, we are neglecting and depriving half of the people. Prosperity of the nation is impossible without the participation of women. For this reason, I think women should be given equal rights like men.

Nowadays, we see that women have come out of the shackles of the past. In most adverts women are no longer shown in the kitchen, they are usually shown outdoors or in a scenic place. If we look at the public results we see that female students obtain better results than male students. Women are having all kinds of education in all branches of knowledge. They are entering all kinds of jobs including defense and police services. They are working as news correspondents and TV/radio reporters, actresses, politicians etc.

Women are now equally performing their duties in their families, professions and other sectors. Even in the physical labour of construction work, industries, agricultural farms and business houses women have proved their worth. Women are gradually becoming self-reliant. They are contributing to their family income. They are able to differentiate between right and wrong. They can understand what is good and what is bad for them. They play a vital role to bring up their children and maintain their families.

In spite of all these, women are not given equal rights and opportunities in our society. They are usually offered a lower payment. They are sometimes treated as half of the worth of men. But this discrimination should be abolished. Otherwise, half of the population will remain in darkness and the prosperity of the nation will not be properly achieved. (Words : 303)

Satellite channels are a threat to our own culture

Every nation has its own culture and of course, we have a very rich culture. But it is a shocking fact that our culture is now under a great threat because of satellite channels. Satellite TV channels started its journey in Bangladesh at 1992. Before that BTV was the dominant medium for about 28 years and had the monopoly power. Undoubtedly, satellite channels are a great source of our enjoyment but our young generation is too much affected and influenced by those channels. Forgetting our own culture we are gradually becoming more prone to western culture. So, I think, satellite channels are now turning as a threat rather than mere a source of enjoyment.

In the present context of the world, culture of a country is not confined to a territorial barrier. For satellite channels one country’s people are getting used to another’s culture very easily. But this adaptation of other culture forgetting their own might be a disastrous factor for them because culture means the origin of a nation, of a country.

We, the Bangladeshis, have a rich culture. Historically our culture is indispensable in our everyday life. But it is a matter of sorrow that we are gradually losing our norms and customs. It is really a shameful matter. And this is because of the effect of foreign satellite channels. Our young generation enjoys foreign programs with great attraction ignoring our own cultural programs. Besides they are getting used to the foreign lifestyle also which is actually fake to our social norms and values.

Adopting another culture is not bad if we can value our own culture. But if we fail to preserve our own culture, it would bring an utter destruction to our social and economic life. So, satellite channels are a great threat to our own cultural values. (Words : 303)

Children should not be physically punished

It is a general belief that children are punished because adults want to teach them something. The whole purpose of punishment in the case of children, is intended to change their behaviour. Adults generally do whatever it takes to get children to behave in an acceptable way. For this reason, adults often punish them physically through causing pain.

I think, physical punishment of children is an over-reaction and can never be justified. First of all, it is a very thin line between punishment and abuse of children. In many cases adults claim that they intend to reform their children end up abusing them. Sometimes children are treated like enemies.

Emotional scars are left on children who are disciplined with pain. Many criminals have turned out to be those who had been abused as children. They become immune pain for others. So physical punishment actually helps one to be a criminal. Since there is no way to control this we may follow other ways to punish the children. The caring parents can think of many ways of punishing a child without hurting their children. For example, children can be stopped from watching their favourite programmes on television or perhaps be grounded for fixed periods of time or stopped from playing etc.

Parents who really love their children will not want to cause them physical pain. School teachers have also become conscious of the adverse effect of physical punishment. They are using the techniques of motivation and encouragement. Parents have to change some of their beliefs and ideas about how children should be raised. It is possible to avoid the use of physical force in the home. It will help to remove violence from our society. So, my opinion is that adults can think of other methods of punishment in lieu of physical punishment. (Words : 302)

Coaching centres are useless  

Coaching centres are a common scenario in our country. The centres or homes where students are given special coaching for their preparation for various examinations are called coaching centres. It is funny that a student goes to the same teacher in coaching centre to learn the subject what the teacher teaches him/ her in college/school. The amount of money that a student is to pay for coaching is usually high. Many poor students are not able to pay the amount. As they do not get proper care in school/college and cannot go to coaching classes they do not perform well in the examination.

There is a tendency among our students to depend on private tutors. They remain inattentive in their classroom and depend on coaching centres for study. They do not try to think to solve any problems themselves. They depend on private tutors for each and every subject. A good number of students depend on suggestions to pass their exam. The school/college teacher gives suggestions in his/ her coaching centre. So, students go to coaching centres for suggestions.

Sometimes coaching centres are seen crowded, over burdened and noisy. Some of the students even do not get a desk to write on. He/She has to keep his/her copy book on one hand to write with the other. The teachers who teach in these coaching centres are efficient, no doubt. If a teacher is efficient in coaching centre, he/she should be so at college/school too. But to serve his/her own need, he/she is not serious in the classroom, as he/she is in the private tuition.

To stop this bad practice of coaching centre, the teachers should give more attention to take classes and they should be well paid. Government should employ qualified and efficient teachers. Above all, students should be more attentive to study rather than to be dependent on private tutors and suggestions. (Words : 310)

Education should be made compulsory   

Education is the formal process of institutional learning for the development of the mind and soul. I support the opinion that education should be made compulsory for the following reasons. The purpose of education is to enlighten the individual and develop his/ her capacity to the limit. It is compared to light while ignorance is compared to darkness. An ignorant person is unable to gain knowledge from something. Education helps us make difference between right and wrong, good and evil, fair and foul etc.

Education makes people familiar with the latest inventions of science and technology. People can use scientific instruments and technology in their activities and be benefitted. Farmers can use modern tools and highly productive seeds for cultivation.

Education is essential for women folk. A good mother can produce a good citizen. In order to have good citizens, female education is a must. No nation can make real progress keeping a full half of its population in the dark. Without the uplift of women, the progress of the nation is not at all possible. Again without education women cannot be elevated. So an all out education should be imparted to the women folk so that they may come forward and work hand in hand with men in all development programmes.

Education is the backbone of a nation. It is the tool of development of individual knowledge and skill. When the people of a country are educated, their skill and knowledge accumulate for the benefit of the country. It is the duty of every government to make education free and compulsory. The poor people do not send their children to school for want of money. So, education should be made compulsory for all men and women of all areas, communities, professions and religions for the balanced development of the nation. (Words : 301)

Television may be used as a medium of education

Television is one of the wonders of modern science. It is the most up-to-date means of entertainment. It provides both sound and pictures. A German scientist, Paul Nepkov, invented television. Then John L. Baird modernized it.

Television may be used as a medium of spreading education. Bangladesh Open University is telecasting its curricular programmes through television to their distant learners. Bangladesh Institute of Distance Education (BIDE) is also doing wonderful work through television.

Television may play an important role to remove mass illiteracy. People who are not able to go to school can watch them and be educated. Television can also be used for female education. Television programmes have great educative value for children. Extracurricular activities like debating are also shown on TV.

We get various types of information from TV channels. They provide us with round the clock news service and keep us informed of the latest affairs happening around the globe. Several channels like Discovery Channel and the National Geography Channel telecast reports on new discoveries, animal world, weather, agriculture, world heritage etc. Other satellite channels also telecast reports and analysis on trade and commerce, business and industries etc.

The govt. as well as different non-government organizations sponsor programmes on literacy movement, evils of dowry, evils of religious or political extremism etc. Such kind of programmes contribute a lot to educate viewers about various social affairs.

Many TV channels telecast programmes designed to give religious education. Almost all Bangladeshi channels telecast religious programmes for the Muslims, the Hindus and even for the Christians and the Buddhists. The Islamic TV channel is contributing greatly to the moral development of the Muslims around the world. Television is a wonderful device that contributes a lot to educate people. It instructs us in various fields. In fact, almost all the TV programmes directly or indirectly have educative value. (Words : 305)

 

Mass education is very important in Bangladesh

‘Mass education’ means education for the illiterate people of our country. Mass education aims at giving knowledge of letters to the illiterate people, to make them able to read and write. Mass education also makes people aware of their rights and duties and makes them conscious and responsible citizens, to make them able to differentiate between right and wrong.

Mass education is essential to make our farmers aware of modern science and technology. Most of our farmers are not familiar with the latest invention of science and technology in respect of agriculture. If our farmers use scientific method of cultivation, our production will be increased. Mass education is necessary to make our people aware of the control of population explosion. Many of our people especially illiterate people do not know much about the adverse effect of large population. If we cannot make our people aware of the adverse effect of large population, we cannot control the population explosion. If we cannot control our population explosion, there will be no development. Mass education can play an important role for the betterment of women folk. About half of our population is women. Many of our women especially poor village women are not educated. They are not aware of family planning. An uneducated woman easily becomes a victim to oppression, suppression, exploitation and injustices. She silently bears all the humiliations and tortures inflicted upon her. If women are educated, the maltreatment of the women in the family and in the society will be diminished.

There is no deniable question about the necessity of mass education. National information media took extensive programmes in respect of mass education. Present government is also making efforts for it. Yet the mass literacy campaign should be further strengthened. All educated persons should take active part to make the mass people educated. (Words : 303)

Women have contribution to the development of our country

About half of the people of our country are women. So, our nation cannot achieve success without the participation of women in the activities of the society.

Garments are the most contributing industries in the development of our country. More than 70 percent of our garment workers are women. Women are working in the poultry farms. The participation of women has increased the total production of the country. A good number of our women work as construction workers. Women are taking education and working in different offices nowadays. They are working in offices, in banks, in factories, in schools, colleges and universities, in armed forces, in trade and commerce. They are participating in the administration also. Our ex-prime minister and present prime minister are women, too. Women are working as social workers too. They are contributing to the social development of our country. The role of women in handicraft is also significant for the development of the country. Besides, the bringing up of the children, the management of the family and even the shopping and marketing depend on women. The general attitude of our society towards women has undergone a great change. Earlier women were thought to be fit only in the kitchen and in domestic works. Nowadays, in every respect women are being given priority. In the field of education, medical science, culture, the government takes special care of women. Women are now considered as the assets of our country. The role of women in the development of our country is vast. Still I think the participation of women is not up to the mark. More women should participate as they are the half of our population. We should not impose any social and religious barriers on their onward march. If the country could ensure a better environment for women to work, they would contribute more and more. (Words : 309)

It is impossible to get rid of traffic jam living in cities

Traffic jam means a long line of vehicles stranded on the road. It is a common picture in cities and towns of Bangladesh.

There are several causes behind traffic jam. Many drivers are not aware of the rules and regulations of driving and many others are not willing to abide by traffic rules. Vehicles of various velocities ply on the same road and it slows down the movement of vehicles. Reckless driving and illegal parking sometimes cause traffic jam. Besides, our cities do not have spacious and sufficient roads which is another cause of traffic jam.

Traffic jam is a common problem to all the big cities like Dhaka. The problem is acute and very difficult to solve. But I think, it is not impossible to get rid of traffic jam. By adopting some measures, we can easily get rid of traffic jam. The unauthorized infrastructures and vendors on the walkways should be removed so that people can walk freely. The vehicles should not be allowed to park on the roads or stand for a long time. The buses should not be allowed stop here and there except the designated bus stops for the passengers to get in or get down. People should not be allowed to walk on the road, cross the road at any point, any time. They should be forced to use the foot over bridge to cross the road. The traffic rules, signals and systems must be strictly enforced and followed for ensuring a systematic movement of vehicles. Separate lanes should be marked for rickshaws, pushcarts and other non-motorized vehicles. The construction materials like bricks, sand, bamboos and rods should not be kept on the roads. The rubbish, garbage or wastes should be allowed to be dumped on the road. Flyovers, bypasses and underpasses are extremely necessary for a busy city like Dhaka. But unfortunately the number of these utility structures is negligible. So, a large number of flyovers should be constructed at the big crossing points. Bypasses should be constructed to connect two roads, sideway so that the people need not travel a long way for going from one place to another. More underpasses should not be built for the people to cross the roads and they should be kept free from illegal occupation.

If all the above measures are taken, traffic jam will surely be decreased. But above all, our government should have a positive outlook and law enforcing agencies should be strict in performing their duties. (Words : 314)

Population in Bangladesh : A prospect or a problem                         [DB ’16]

In some underdeveloped countries, the population may help in the economic progress of the country by providing cheap and abundant labor. It can also expand market which necessitates effective demand.

In Bangladesh, population is increasing at an alarming rate. It is a great menace to our economic growth. But the birth rate has continued to remain more or less stationary. A high birth-rate accompanied by a low death-rate cannot adjust population to the means of living.

  • In Bangladesh, food supply is inadequate, and one-third of the populations are underfed.
  • The explosive rate of growth of population has also greatly aggravated the unemployment problem in Bangladesh. Unemployment and under-employment in rural and urban areas are a serious headache for the economic planners. Unemployed people do not make any addition to the production. But they have to be fed by the community all the time. The natural resources are not harnessed.
  • One of the far-reaching results of the ever increasing population is that it reduces the saving and investment of the country. The average annual per capita income is very low. The purchasing power of the people is extremely poor. The national income leaves no margin for saving.
  • There is also high proportion of unproductive population. In 1961, 57 percent of the population were unproductive consumers. In 1991, this percentage has gone up to 62.4 percent.
  • The growth of population also affects the standard of living of the people. In Bangladesh, one-third of the people live below the subsistence level.
  • Women in Bangladesh do not participate in the productive activity for a long time due to frequent maternity.

Hence, the growth of population adversely affects the pace of economic progress in Bangladesh. The population pressure worsens the unemployment problems, keeps down the per capita real income and the country’s national income, aggravates the supply of food grains and also militates against capital formation. (Words : 316)

                                          Advantages and Disadvantages of City life                               [BB ’16]

A city life has its own glamour which attracts people from underdeveloped areas. Though it always lures the people of all classes for its comforts and for its cultural, economic and commercial facilities, it has some backdrops.

A city life has rich amenities which are necessary for the modern way of life. Transport facilities of modern towns and cities are highly developed. We have trams, buses, motorcars for quick and comfortable transport. It supplies potable water through a network of pipelines and electricity to its residents. There is a sewerage system of drainage of waste water. There is an authority to look to the sanitation. There are hospitals and clinics for proper medical treatment of sick people. There is normally a health centre with qualified doctors to attend to the ailing people. There are good schools and colleges for education. There are educational and possibly vocational institutions with facility for use of library. All kinds of physical comforts are within our easy reach. In the heat of the day we can use the electric fan, cooler, and air-conditioner.

Endowed with a lot of facilities, a city life is not free from disadvantages. Many of the streets are dirty and unpleasant due to noise, smoke and dust. The density of population is quite high in urban areas. A city is normally a commercial centre. Too many people live here and we do not feel easy. The rattling sound of buses, motor cars and other vehicles always disturb us. There are dangers to health in crowded cities. Smoke and dust fill the air. Hence, urban life is unhealthy for want of fresh food and fresh air. In the bigness of the city we lose the common human touch.

Nowadays, rural development programs have been taken up in right earnest, yet the advantages of a modern city are far greater than those of the rural areas. (Words : 313)

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