Hsc English 2nd Paper Paragraph Writing Part 2

                         English 2nd Paper

Table of Contents

                                     Paragraph Writing

                                                               Part 2


                                 Descriptive Paragraph

                                                 55.Kitchen Garden

A family is greatly benefited by making a kitchen garden very close to its homestead. A kitchen garden supplies different types of vegetables and fruits to the family for consumption. Generally, each and every house in the rural areas of our country possesses a kitchen garden for family use and for sale. A kitchen garden lies within the boundaries of the family. It may be big or small. A strong fence around the garden protects the vegetables and fruits from being damaged by animals and naughty boys. Some kitchen gardens have flower gardens attached to it increasing the beauty of the house. The owners of the kitchen garden needs to be careful and cautious about the cultivation, growth and preservation of vegetables, fruits and flowers. Vegetables and fruits feed the owners of the garden while flowers enhance the beauty for their satisfaction. In fact, the vegetables grown in the kitchen garden provide people with necessary vitamins and also save money necessary for buying them. Besides, working in the garden gives a chance for proper physical exercise and also mental peace and satisfaction. (Words : 182)


SIDR, a destructive natural calamity, had a devastating effect on human and animal lives including the damage of trees, crops and houses. SIDR is the name of a cyclone. SIDR means eye according to the climatologists, it is so named because the centre of the cyclone looks like human’s eyes. On November 15 in 2007, SIDR attacked the southern coastal areas of Bangladesh with all its fury. It hit the main land with a great velocity up to 280 kilometres per hour and tidal surge of 20 to 25 feet high killing more than ten thousand people. Thousands of domestic animals, birds, trees, houses, crops and cultivated lands were destroyed. Millions of people lost their belongings and became shelterless. Over 8000 educational institutions have been fully or partially destroyed hampering educational activities of nearly 7,50,000 students. Along with all these, almost one third of the Sundarbans, a World Heritage Site, has been totally demolished. Of course, the government took necessary measures timely to save the people. They alarmed the people early and made a lot of shelters which saved the people from further damage. (Words : 185)

                                57.Usefulness of E-mail

E-mail or Electronic mail is one of the many modern devices of communication of textual message via electronic means. A personal computer, a modem and a telephone connection are needed for E-mail. This is not only a quick, easy and relatively cheap way to keep in touch with family and friends, it has also become an essential tool of business. E-mail has many advantages or usefulness. Firstly, it reduces the use of paper in offices and business concerns. Internal memos and reports can be exchanged electronically without using paper. Secondly, being a personal communication, E-mail turns out to be a cheaper alternative to telephone conversation. Thirdly, it eliminates the time spent in establishing phone calls. Fourthly, it permits communication between two individuals or parties without the parties actually being present simultaneously. Next, privacy is ensured as the mail is delivered to an individual mail box. Moreover, it becomes very easy to transfer important files, documents and photos etc instantly without physically going to anywhere. So, e-mail service is an important service of our modern communication. It maintains our private, social and official network in a powerful and effective way. (Words : 189)

                                    58.Life of a Beggar

Begging, which is a social vice, is most disreputable. A person who lives on the charity of others for his/her livelihood is regarded as a burden to the society. Begging does not do any good for society rather spoil the image and prestige of the person involved in begging. There are many causes behind begging. Poverty is the main cause that leads a person to take up begging as a source of living. Disableness like blindness, deafness, dumbness or some other disorders in the body are also some reasons for begging. Of course, sometimes many able bodied persons are seen begging in the streets. So it is not only poverty but also mentality which is responsible for this problem. A beggar is mostly found in the streets and roads of towns and in the market places of villages. He puts on dirty ragged clothes with patches all over it. He has a begging bowl and holds it out to the passer-by with a piteous appeal. He lives a distressed life and is looked down upon as a nuisance. Poverty alleviation programme, employment facilities, education, free treatment for some diseases can remove this problem from society. (Words : 195)

                                 59.Role of Intellectuals

Being the highly educated section of the people of a country, the intellectuals represent the conscience of a nation. They are thought to be the think tank of a nation. So, obviously they are expected to play some important roles in the present situation of our country. Firstly, as the guardian class of the country, they should give counsel and direction to the country and the country men. Secondly, they should actively take part in nation building activities; especially they should work for the economic emancipation of the nation. They should be bold enough to criticize what is bad and help to promote the national plans and politics of the country. Thirdly, the intellectuals should have a role to reform the society and to curb out all sorts of evils. Finally, they should have also a role to build up public opinion against all sorts of injustice and corruption. Of course, politically motivated intellectuals sometimes try to mislead the people which is most disrespectful. However, the true intellectuals play a vital role to lead the country towards the path of peace, harmony and prosperity. (Words : 184)

                                     60.Gender Equality

Gender equality does not imply that men and women are the same, but they have equal value and should be given equal treatment. According to the United Nations, gender equality is regarded the first and foremost human right. All– men and women are equal in the eye of the Creator.  So there should be no discrimination between them. Empowering women is an indispensable tool for advancing development and reducing poverty in a country. Empowered women contribute a lot to the health, sanitation and productivity of the families and communities as well as to improve prospects for the next generation. Therefore, gender equality is important not only for the women but also for the society as a whole. Gender discrimination prevails more or less everywhere around the world. From family to national level it exists as a social phenomenon. In Bangladesh, men basically dominate the family and the society and make decision in the family matters. Women are kept aloof from making any kind of decision. To bring in gender equality, we all should come forward to make the people aware of the equal status of the women. (Words : 187)

                              61.Tree/Tree Plantation

Since the dawn of civilization man has a close relation with nature. Man has made friendship with trees. As such, trees play an important role in our life and economy. Planting trees is a noble work as trees and plants supply oxygen, the most vital thing for our survival. Besides, they are a great source of food and vitamins. Trees also provide us with fruits, flowers and timber for furniture. They give shade and shelter to many people. They make the land fertile and save land from erosion. They attract rains, prevent drought, control flood and maintain ecological balance. Nowadays, Bangladesh has been facing drought, excessive rainfall and floods because of tremendous shortage of her forests. We should therefore, make it a point to plant more trees than we cut down. Plenty of seedlings and saplings need to be planted on both sides of roads and in the unused barren lands around our houses. It is impossible to describe the importance and uses of trees in words. They are a part and parcel of our day to day life. In fine, tree plantation is necessary for the maintenance of ecological balance. (Words : 191)

                                       62.Our Liberation War

Our liberation war is a memorable event in the history of Bangladesh. After a nine-month long war with the occupying Pakistani forces, Bangladesh emerged as an independent sovereign state in the world map on 16th December, 1971. After the departure of the British from this sub-continent in 1947, the Pakistanis exploited this part of Pakistan economically, socially, politically and above all militarily. The heroic sons of the soil could no longer tolerate this exploitation and they being inspired by Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman rose in arms against the Pak military junta on 26 March, 1971. Prior to that Bangabandhu made a clarion call to the people and declared the independence of Bangladesh on 26 March, 1971. In the war lacs of people were brutally killed, hundreds and thousands of women were raped or killed. The youths along with people from different strata sacrificed their lives for the cause of independent Bangladesh. They fought face to face with the Pak army under the banner of Mukti Bahini and at last the sun of independence rose on the 16th December, 1971. The day has become a red letter day in the lives of the Bangladeshis. (Words : 195)


Bonsai is a special type of pot-planting. It is the art of growing trees and plants in small containers in such a way that it becomes the miniature of a real tree. The art of Bonsai originated perhaps more than 1000 years ago in China. Both Chinese and Japanese aristocrats are responsible for its development. Bonsai containers have holes in the bottom covered with small nets to prevent the soil from flowing out with the water. At first the plant is taken out of its original pot and one-third of its root is cut off. It is then tied to the bottom of the pot with wires. Then soil is spread over it to cover the container. But about half an inch of the root is allowed to stay above the soil to enhance its beauty. The soft branches of the plant are coiled with wires. A Bonsai plant grows to a height as the planter wants it to grow. Almost all bushy plants can be grown as Bonsai. At present Bonsai is not only an interesting pastime but also a source of money making. (Words : 185)

                                  64.Bangla New Year

Bangla New Year is a traditional festival in the life of the Bangladeshis as well as the Bangla speaking people all over the world. Pahela Baishakh is the first day of the Bangla New Year. The most important feature of the day is the opening of Halkhata by the traders and shopkeepers both in the rural and urban areas. People of all ages and religions welcome the day wearing new dresses. The traders and shopkeepers entertain their clients and customers with sweets and other foods. The village people arrange Baishakhi Mela at different places and enjoy them whole heartedly. On the other hand, the urban people celebrate this day with great enthusiasm wearing colourful dresses and attending different cultural functions including fairs, circus shows, and merry-go-rounds etc. In the capital city the day begins with the celebration of a musical performance welcoming the Bangla New Year by Chhayanata, a leading cultural organization of the country. Above all, the institute of Fine Arts of Dhaka University welcomes the day bringing out a colourful procession wearing masks of different shapes and sizes. Thus the day comes to the life of every Bangladeshi with pleasure and happiness. (Words : 196)

                                      65.Street Children

Street Children or street urchins are familiar figures in the streets of a third world country like Bangladesh. Most of them are the abandoned children of their parents. They are rootless. These are floating children of a country. They do not know about the whereabouts of their parents, their place and date of birth. Many of them are orphans. Generally they earn their livelihood by begging, stealing, cheating, selling flowers and doing the job of the wage earners. But sometimes some poor parents make their children work in the streets. These street children live in the dirty slums, on the roadside pavements without any protection against rough weather. They sleep under the open sky. They also work as garbage collectors, porters and rickshaw pullers. Sometimes they beg for food. They are deprived of education, health care and nutrition. Though they are abandoned children, they are human beings. They are the to be citizens of our country. They have some basic rights to live, to enjoy, to survive in peace and to receive education. The government and the people in general should do something so that these helpless and homeless children can taste the sweetness of life. (Words : 196)

                                       66.Elderly People

The old and seasoned section of our society are known as elderly people. Human beings are born as babies in this beautiful world. After passing through different stages of life namely infancy, childhood, youth, adulthood, they become old and are treated as elderly people of a family and the society. During their lifetime they play several important and vital roles that are helpful for the next generation. Their long experience, wisdom and untiring efforts are a milestone for the people of the future generation. They were the strength of our civilization. In every area of our society, there are lots of elderly people. We all should help them, provide them with free living and medical treatment cost. We should provide them with all kinds of human rights. For their recreation and reminiscence, we should establish an Old Home for them so that they do not feel desolate. We should extend our helping hands towards the elderly people whenever and wherever they need. We can also include them in our working opportunity. Social awareness can be raised for the old. The government should also come forward to improve their lot. (Words : 189)

                               67.Extended Family

An extended family consisting of parents, grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins, brothers and sisters has both advantages and disadvantages. In the past, this type of family was prevalent in our country. But at present extended family system is breaking into nuclear ones. Extended family can also be called a joint family. In an extended family each and every member has to play his/her role well in order to run the family smoothly. In an extended family everybody gets others company. If anybody becomes sick or remains busy with some pre occupations, others come to nurse or assist him/ her. It is a family where all members share each others feelings and activities. The elderly members always guide the family. In an extended family nobody feels that he/ she is alone. Here, everybody is for everybody. But there are some disadvantages also. Privacy cannot be maintained here. Nobody has any scope to decide any problem or anything in his/ her own way. Here nobody feels lonely and sharing of each others feelings and activities gives enjoyment to all. There is always din and bustle in the family and a chaotic condition prevails in the family. (Words : 193)

                                     68.Good Health

Good health is a prerequisite to lead a better and healthier life. People with good health enjoy the soundness of both mental and physical health. They remain fit, active and free from diseases. A student who possesses a good health can pay full attention to studies. He can learn his lessons regularly and do well in the examination. On the other hand, if a student does not possess a good health, he cannot pay attention to studies. He cannot learn his lessons regularly and cannot do well in the examination. A healthy man can work for long hours and regularly. He can support himself and his family well. An unhealthy man cannot work for long hours. Even he cannot work regularly. He cannot support himself and his family well. Besides, an unhealthy man cannot eat what he likes. He cannot have a sound sleep at night. It is said that a healthy poor man is happier than a sick moneyed man. So, if we want to live a happy life, we should try to keep in good health. (Words : 178)


Patriotism, an inherent quality in a man, is one of the noblest virtues. It means love for and devotion to one’s country. It inspires a man to do everything just and fair for the well-being of the country. Love for one’s own country purifies one’s mind, removes the narrowness of heart and helps one to be selflessly inspired. Patriotic zeal makes a man dutiful, energetic and enthusiastic. Patriotism teaches a man fellow feeling, fraternity and love and sympathy for countrymen. A patriot does not hesitate even to sacrifice his own life for the cause of his country. A true patriot is a selfless lover of his country. So, he is praised and honoured by his countrymen. On the other hand, an unpatriotic man is self-centred. So, he is hated by all. He may have high titles, immense wealth, high social prestige and noble birth, but despite his worldly achievements, he remains a worthless person. An unpatriotic man dies a double death. On the contrary, a patriot is immortal and remains in the hearts of the people for ever. Isa Khan, Titumir, Tipu Sultan, Khudiram, Surja Sen, Pritilata set up glaring examples of patriotism in this sub-continent. (Words : 196)

                                        70.National Flag

A national flag is the symbol of independence and sovereignty of a free country. Bangladesh has also a national flag. Bangladesh got this flag on December 16, 1971 after a nine-month long valiant struggle of our heroic freedom fighters with the occupying Pakistani army. The flag is rectangular in size having a proportion of 10 : 6. There are two colours in our national flag – bottle green and red. The green colour of our flag stands for everlasting youth, freshness and vigour of the nation. It also symbolizes the greenery of Bangladesh. The deep red round colour part symbolizes the rising sun of independence. It also stands for the supreme sacrifices of our heroic freedom fighters who laid down their lives for the cause of their motherland. The flag is hoisted everyday on top of government buildings, educational institutions and offices. It is hoisted everywhere on the Independence Day and the Victory Day. Besides, it is hoisted half mast on national and international mourning days. Whenever we see our national flag flying, our mind is filled with joy and hearts swell in pride. (Words : 184)

                                     71.Early Rising

The habit of early rising provides a lot of benefits to the early riser. It is of special use to a man in various ways. It is essential for maintaining good health. Firstly, an early riser can take some exercises daily or a walk in the morning fresh air by the river side or in the open field. The morning air full of oxygen refreshes his body and mind. Secondly, he can enjoy the calm and serene atmosphere everywhere. Thirdly, he can enjoy the beauty of nature full of colourful flowers, green fields and the chirping of birds. All these make an early riser cheerful and healthy. Fourthly, he can start his daily work earlier without any worry or haste. Thus he gets enough time to work, earn more and become wealthy. The habit of early rising reminds everybody of the Creator and one feels like praying to God. Thus he becomes wise. So, the habit of early rising is the source of health, wealth and wisdom. (Words : 167)

                                   72.Physical Exercise

Physical exercise, which is very essential for keeping good health, has many advantages. It helps our body to remain active and fit. Though there are different forms of exercise, all forms are not suitable for people of all ages. Walking is the only form of physical exercise that suits people of all classes and ages. The importance of physical exercise is very great in our practical life. It helps us to build a sound body. And a sound mind lives in a sound body. Physical exercise also helps us to keep away from diseases. It keeps the limbs of our body in a perfect condition. It makes our muscles strong and body active. Moreover, it helps the proper circulation of blood and improves digestion of food. It is also necessary to build a healthy nation. Healthy children are the healthy citizens of the future. Everybody should take physical exercise regularly following the rules and according to age and condition of the body. But excess of physical exercise is harmful for health. In fine, physical exercise gives us a feeling of joy and happiness. (Words : 183)


Punctuality means to do the duty in its proper time. It is the mark of civilized and cultured people. It is the habit of doing things in correct time. Doing things in time, thus, saves us from unnecessary troubles. Our life is short but art is long. So we have to do a lot of works within a limited time. If we perform our duty in proper time, we can do many things. But if we leave today’s work for tomorrow, it may so happen that we may not have time to do it and suffer in the long run. There are many advantages of punctuality. It gives discipline to life. Next, it dispels laziness and removes our take it-easy-attitude. A disciplined person always gets recognition and social acceptance. Therefore, punctuality can make us socially acceptable people. It provides ample time to do our work correctly and properly. Doing things hurriedly or haphazardly can have disastrous effects. Punctuality is the precondition of being fully successful in life. Want of punctuality reveals want of culture. All of us are not born with the virtue of punctuality. Only constant, vigilant practice can implant this virtue. (Words : 193)

                    74.Food Habits of Bangladeshi People

Food habits refer to the habits or practices of taking food of the people of a particular society or a country. These habits differ from one society or country to another. In Bangladesh, different people like different kinds of foods according to their own choice and taste. But the eating habits of the people are almost the same. The Bangladeshi people have some special food habits. Rice with dal and fish is our most common and favourite food. Khichuri is another popular food item of the Bangladeshis. Besides, the Bangladeshis are also fond of meat. Moreover, pithas of different kinds and shapes and payesh are also liked very much by them. People also eat wheat, potatoes, other seasonal vegetables, eggs, bread and all sorts of local fruits according to their taste. People occasionally eat polao, biryani, chicken roast, mutton or beef curry. Most families in Bangladesh have three meals a day- breakfast, lunch and dinner. Old people take our traditional foods. But many young people are getting used to Chinese and western fast foods day by day. Now it is time we have to bring some changes in our food habits. (Words : 190)

                           75.Early/Premature Marriage

There are many reasons behind premature marriage in Bangladesh. The persons who get premature marriage suffer a lot in the long run. People especially in the rural areas tend to marry their sons and daughters off earlier than the expected time. Marrying at such a premature age, boys suffer a lot because they have to work hard to run a family. On the other hand, girls suffer even more because they have to risk their lives during premature child birth. Yet the parents of sons marry them off to get dowry from the in-laws. Girls’ parents are often prejudiced against education. Some of them even think that girls are born to serve their in-laws. Thus the premature marriage creates a lot of problems in the society. Lack of education and lack of moral values are the two causes of premature marriage. So, to curb this evil act from our society both the government and the general people should come forward. Last but not the least, raising social awareness can play the key role towards curbing this evil act. (Words : 178)

                     76.Unfair Means in the Examination

unfair means in the examination is a barrier to proper education. But, it is a great regret that many students adopt unfair means in the examination. As a student, I greatly oppose this disgraceful task because its effect is terrible in one’s future life. Education in student life indicates a gradual development which makes one capable of facing the coming challenges of one’s life. But, copying creates a non-skilled manpower and instigates corruption. Students adopt unfair means for various reasons. In some cases, our educational curriculum is yet based on memorization and students do not try for creativity. They try to memorize. When they fail to do that, they start copying in the examination. Many teachers spend more time to private tuition than to teach in classes. Besides, guardians are not careful about the proper schooling of their children. In fine, it can be said that unfair means in the examination is a great hindrance to proper education. (Words : 158)

                    Definition Paragraph

                                      77.Social Values

Social values refer to customs, beliefs, social practices and norms (Av`k©), behavioural patterns and attitude of a particular social community. Social values shape the life of a person to a great extent. They differ from society to society. In the past, people were very much strict about maintaining social values. Obedience and respect for the elders were predominant in our society. Honesty, sincerity, truthfulness, sympathy, fellow feeling were also considered to be social values. But all these are now changing. Today, because of scientific and technological development, people are getting educated. All these have lasting influence on their ideas, beliefs and tradition. Besides, due to economic class-divide, there is deprivation and unrest in society, and it leads some people throw away their moral values. Nowadays people have no fellow feelings, they are becoming self-centred and getting involved in anti social activities, addicted to drugs etc because of social degradation. If it continues, worsen days are ahead of us. To avoid such an incongenial situation, everybody should be careful to preserve social values. (Words : 172)

                              78.Gender Discrimination

Gender discrimination refers to the difference between male and female in respect of enjoying human rights. In Bangladesh, this evil practice is found in almost all sectors of life. Some parents possess a negative attitude towards girl children. They usually expect boy children. So, when a girl is born, she is not welcomed by her parents. Thus this discriminatory treatment begins from the very moment of birth. There are many families where girls and boys do not get equal treatment from their parents. It is seen that sisters are given less food as compared to their brothers. Even they are given less costly dress. Many parents do not send their female children to school because they think that it is a waste of money to spend for girls. Besides, many parents marry their daughters off quite earlier. Moreover, girls are not usually allowed to go out of home without the parents’ permission and male escort. Thus, they grow up in a kind of confinement within four walls. Finally, we can say that females are facing discrimination everywhere in life and we should create awareness among people to free our society from this curse. (Words : 193)

                                79.Micro Credit Institution

Micro credit is a finance system for the massive poverty stricken people to eradicate poverty through developing skills and raising consciousness among them. It has earned international recognition. It has positive impact on economic variables. It lends money to the poor, helpless and homeless especially rural women without any property, land or human security. The women take loans and engage themselves in poultry farming, cattle rearing, knitting, wearing, small business etc. They return the amount in a daily or weekly basis installment. Thus they become self-reliant and come out of the vicious circle of poverty. This helps the economic emergence of the fallen and neglected poor people living in the grass level. Now, many impoverished people are eating three square meals instead of one square meal. It is professor Dr Muhammad Yunus who introduced this system successfully. To acknowledge this contribution, Grameen Bank and Dr Muhammad Yunus have been awarded Nobel Peace Prize. Though Grammeen Bank was the first to introduce it, many NGO’s are now following the concept. Many other developed countries have also launched the system in their countries. (Words : 181)

                                  80.Digital Bangladesh

‘Digital Bangladesh’ means digitalizing Bangladesh by ensuring an ICT based society where information will be available on line and where all possible tasks of the government and other non-government or semi-government will be performed using digital technology. The benefits of Digital Bangladesh are many. If we can establish a digital Bangladesh, corruption will be absolutely eradicated. It will save people’s time and money and will make people more enterprising. It will connect people with the whole world economically, politically, socially, academically and even culturally. It will modernize banking and financial activities. Agriculture, health, education, commerce-all these sectors will be highly benefited by making Bangladesh a digital one. The government has to take certain initiatives for implementing this dream. First of all, uninterrupted power supply has to be ensured. We have to develop computer network infrastructures throughout the country. We also have to train our people to acquire ICT skill and ensure equitable access to digital governance services by all strata of the society. It will be no exaggeration if we say that the implementation of a digital Bangladesh can help our country make progress in all sectors by leaps and bounds. (Words : 191)


Democracy is a system of government where people are the source of all power. People can elect their representative and help them to form government. On the contrary, they can also reject them if they feel it necessary. Here people can enjoy almost all the civic rights and privileges. They have freedom of speech. They can expose their views through different mass media like radio, television, newspaper. Besides, equality, justice and accountability are some important merits of this government system. But there are some specific defects in democracy. Here importance is put not on the quality but on the number. However, democracy is now regarded to be the best system of government. But to have the taste of this best system, some conditions must be fulfilled. The most important condition for the success of democracy is universal education. According to John Stuart Mill – “Universal Education must precede universal suffrage.” On the other hand, equality in every sphere of life, tolerance, brotherhood etc. are vital conditions for successful democracy. In fact, democracy is a system of government in which every citizen has a share. (Words : 184)

                                 82.Waste Management

Waste means things that we no more need and that we usually throw away. There are various types of rubbish like kitchen waste, vegetable waste, plastic and metal waste etc. We can manage these wastes by adopting several procedures. It is quite unwise to throw away our left over vegetables because they then pollute our environment. Besides, we can bury the domestic waste in the courtyard if there is sufficient place for it. These wastes will rot in the ground and will become a good manure. If we burn polythene bags, plastics and other synthetic materials, they will produce much smoke in the air, which is very harmful to human health. So we should keep them in a pile in a safe place so that they do not create any problem for us. But it is wise not to use polythene bags and other synthetics that do not rot and mix with soil. Moreover, we can keep pieces of broken glass, pin, steel, iron, silver etc in a safe place and sell them for recycling. Thus by following some measures we can manage our wastes and keep our environment clean and healthy. (Words : 192)


Globalisation has become a buzzword in the new era of international relations. Basically, it is a process of expanding trade and commerce all over the world by creating a borderless market. But it has had a far reaching effect on many aspects of life. It is now largely based on a strong technological foundation. The electronic transfer of information via the internet has now created a 24 hour trading network. This modern information technology has largely changed banking and financial activities. In fact, globalisation has been a result of improved communication. In this regard, media channels are playing the most vital role. As the young generations are more exposed to these channels, the impact of social values of different countries falls on them. They are also learning many things of the developed countries and are becoming ambitious and hopeful about life. The people of the developing countries are getting employments or jobs in the developed countries. We can hope that the gap between the rich and the poor will come to an end in near future. Thus the people of the entire world will be the inhabitants of a happy global village. (Words : 192)



         Compare and Contrast Paragraph


                                 84.Village Life and City Life                                                                [JB ’17]

Though man is living now both in villages and cities, there are some differences between the two ways of life. The development of the country depends both on the development of the cities and the villages. If the cities produce something, the villages supply them with the raw materials. In the cities, life is busy and competitive, and people live in polluted environment. But the environment of the villages is very fresh and hygienic. Modern facilities are available in the cities, whereas most of the villagers are bereft of modern facilities. Proper medical treatment and higher educational institutions are available in cities. In the cities, people lead a very artificial life in the big buildings. But in the villages, one can lead a simple life in the lap of nature. The villagers can enjoy natural beauties while the city-dwellers can appreciate the beauties of architecture. Their art and culture are also different. So village life and city life have many points of difference. (Words : 163)

                          85.Family Life and Hostel Life

Though as a social being, man lives in families, he is forced to live away from his family either in messes or in hostels. There are advantages and disadvantages in both ways of life. A hostel life is completely devoid of parental love and guidance that are available in the family life. In hostel life a student has to manage everything by himself and learn how to cope with the realities of life. But in a family, parents try to bring up their children in accordance with their wishes and ideology. In hostel life, one gets complete liberty, which often may cause havoc. If one is not conscious of one’s time and responsibility he can easily be gone astray. Reckless students need complete familial control and guidance. In hostel life, a student gets ample time to read and learn and he can easily take others’ help which are not available in a family life. A careful and conscious person can easily do well either living in a family or in a hostel. (Words : 172)

                  86.The Sunrise and the Sunset Scenes

The sunrise and the sunset scenes have found their place in many literary and artistic works. These have always amazed the dreamers and thoughtful people since the primitive period till the modern era. There are many similarities between the scenes of the sunrise and the sunset. The sunrise scene marks the beginning of the day. It means it occurs at an extremity of the day. The sunset occurs at the end of a day. In a clear morning, the sun looks red in the horizon. Even before it appears above the tree-line, the whole eastern sky becomes tinged with a vermillion red colour. At sunset, in the western sky, also the same appearance of nature takes place. In the sunrise scene, birds fly in flocks and cross the red-coloured sky. They look wonderful against a red background. The same scene can be seen at sunset. There may be many other aspects of the scenes which are similar. (Words : 157)

           87.Technical Education and General Education

Education is the backbone of a nation. Hence the purpose of education is to enlighten a person. And educated and enlightened persons are an asset to a nation. In this respect, both general education and technical education play important and vital roles in the development of the nation. General education usually makes a man highly educated. But this type of education often fails to establish a man in his life. And it does not make a man specialized. As a result, a number of highly educated persons remain unemployed and become a burden of the society and the country. On the other hand, a man having technical education, can somehow manage a job and become self reliant. General education is not job oriented. This is why, many people having MBBS and Engineering degrees are seen working in banks and commercial institutions. Conversely technical education is job oriented. So, it ensures getting a job in the respective fields. Anyhow technical education should be made compulsory for all. On the contrary, general education should be only for the selected persons. In our socio-economic condition, technical education is inevitable. (Words : 186)

                          88.Cell phone and Land phone

Both cell phone and land phone have the same purpose and they both work in the same way. But they have many differences as well. For example, a cell phone has to have at least six service bars in order to talk and the battery has to be charged before it works. On the other hand, a land phone is a hard wired phone that has to be installed through wiring within the home and can be used anywhere within the home being maintained by telephone servicemen. Someone can leave a message with the cell phone and the receiver will get it right on the phone. On the contrary, one has to have an answering machine on a land phone. A cell phone can be programmed for special rings but a land phone has only one ringtone. A cell phone is much smaller in shape and size than a land phone. In spite of having many differences, they have some similarities too. They both have ringtones and tell one about an incoming call. Although they have different appearances and gadgets, they both serve the same purpose. (Words : 185)

                                  89.Football and Cricket

Both football and cricket are outdoor games and give recreation and merriment to the spectators. Each game has its own characteristics and taste. Both of these games are held between two teams consisting of eleven players. But there are three extra players in football whereas only one player is extra in cricket. Football is a short time game. On the other hand, cricket is time consuming. Football is played with a football. On the contrary, cricket is played with a ball and bats. A football match is conducted by a referee in the middle of the field with two assistant referees in the side lines. On the other hand, a cricket match is run by two main umpires in the field and a third umpire known as the TV umpire. There is a goal keeper in a football match, whereas there is a wicket keeper in a cricket match. There are two goalposts at two opposite ends but there are two sets of stamps and bails. In spite of having some differences between the two games, their purposes are entertaining and teaching discipline, punctuality and tolerance. (Words : 187)


               Cause and Effect Paragraph

                     90.Road Accident/Causes and Effects of Road Accident                       [DB ’17; RB ’16]

A road accident is the most vulnerable, unexpected, intolerable incident in human life. Nowadays, Bangladesh becomes one of the most accident prone countries where generally, this incident happens mostly. It generally takes place on High Ways where all the vehicles are always in a hurry. Road accidents cause unexpected incidents but if we find the reasons of this, then, at first the ignorance of traffic rules is found. Always we ignore the traffic rules as if we loved to do it and it causes accident. Besides these, there are some other reasons. As roads are not wide and good, most of the vehicles are nearly damaged but they are on road, the drivers are not well trained and not sincere to their duty etc. Because of these above mentioned reasons, road accident is usually happened. These all are known to us but we do not care for it. Due to such accidents, people lose their lives. To solve the problem, some attempts should be taken by government and individuals. Traffic rules should be made strict. People must be made aware of traffic rules. (Words : 183)

                                       91.Drug Addiction                                                                      [CB ’17; 16]

Drug addiction, a curse in modern age leads to an untimely miserable death of the addicts. Drug addiction is the habit of using non-prescribed medicine for exciting feelings. Opium, hemp, heroine, morphine, yaba, phensidyl etc. are the main drugs taken in our country. There are a great variety of reasons behind drug addiction. Frustration due to unemployment, political anarchy, lack of family ties and lack of love and affection is the main cause of drug addiction. Drugs create some kind of dreamlike feelings and the drug-takers forget everything for some moments and live in a world of hallucination. Drug addiction causes a lot of harms not only to the addicts but also to the society and nation as a whole. Drugs tell upon the human body terribly. The addicts feel drowsy and their nervous system gradually becomes weak causing damage to their brain which leads to decay and death. When the addicts fail to arrange money for buying drugs, they commit various kinds of social crimes and become dependent on others. Both the government and non-government agencies including the parents may cure the addicts and help them to live a happy and peaceful life in the society. (Words : 197)


                                         92.Food Adulteration                                                                      [SB ’17]

Food adulteration means making food or drink less pure by adding or mixing another substance to it. Nowadays foods are often adulterated. In hotels and restaurants stale and rotten foods are mixed with fresh food and served to the customers. Fish and vegetables are adulterated by putting on them chemicals and other preservatives in order to make them look fresh. Bakery and confectionery products are also prepared by using toxic substances and thus they get adulterated. Junk food contains harmful chemicals. Even fruits, milk and beverages are adulterated. In fact all kinds of foods and food articles are adulterated by dishonest and greedy businessmen and shop keepers for quick and unearned profit. Adulterated foods are a serious health hazard. They cause many fatal diseases and even death. Public awareness should be created so that they become careful about buying foods and food articles. Besides, the criminals have to be identified and punished. The relevant department of the government should remain ever vigilant against food adulteration and gear up their activities. (Words : 170)


                                        93.Water                                                                                                   Pollution                             [SB’16]

Water, one of the ingredients of life, is being polluted by many ways. And it is men who are greatly responsible for water pollution. Man pollutes water by throwing different wastes into rivers, canals and ditches. Farmers use chemical fertilizers and insecticides in their fields to grow more food. When these chemicals and insecticides get mixed with rain water, it causes water pollution. Mills and factories throw away their waste materials and toxic wastes into the rivers and canals and cause water pollution. Steamers, launches and boats also pollute water by throwing oil, food and human waste into the rivers and canals. Moreover, unsanitary latrines in the countryside standing on the banks of ditches, canals and rivers also pollute water. Furthermore, Kutcha drains running into the canals and rivers cause water pollution. Clean water is safe for use but polluted water is harmful for man. Water pollution can be prevented in many ways. Various kinds of fatal diseases like diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera including water borne diseases are the effects of water pollution. Water pollution always threatens the existence of human lives on earth. (Words : 183)

                             94.Environment Pollution

Environmental pollution has become a serious problem nowadays. With the advancement of civilization and industrial sectors, pollution has increased to a great extent. People are cutting trees for making brick, melting pitch etc. for road construction. As a result, air is being polluted. Again various motor vehicles, power houses, industries etc. emit smoke and pollute air. Water and soil are also polluted, Farmers use chemical fertilizers and insecticides in their fields. They are ultimately getting mixed with water of various sources. Besides, water vehicles and insanitary hanging latrines on rivers are also polluting water seriously. Abandoned garbage and human waste here and there cause odour pollution. Thus we see that all vital elements of our environment are losing their freshness and increasingly polluting our environment. The effect of environment pollution is very serious. It causes different diseases destroying the ecological balance. Now people are very concerned about the ever increasing environment pollution as a threat to our existence. (Words : 158)


Deforestation, a threat to our environment is caused from various reasons for which men are responsible. Deforestation means cutting down trees or destruction of trees at random. Our population is increasing at a high rate and this additional population requires more land for settlement and agricultural cultivation. We need more roads, bridges, educational institutions, hospitals and many other institutions to serve innumerable purposes. As a result, land for trees and forests are getting decreased day by day. People are also destroying trees for cooking food, making fires, melting pitch etc. The effect of deforestation on our environment is very serious. Deforestation causes increase of carbon dioxide, global warming and ecological imbalance. Besides, there occurs various natural calamities like flood, cyclone, tidal surge, sea level rise etc. All these terribly affect the wild life as well as our environment. So, we may say that it is men who are mostly responsible for deforestation. To save our environment we should stop cutting trees and plant more trees and the government should raise a concern among people. (Words : 174)

                         96.Smoking : A Habitual Sickness

Smoking is a very bad habit which is injurious to health. Inhaling the smoke of burnt tobacco is called smoking. The tobacco can be either burnt in a device called pipe or it can be wrapped and rolled in a piece of tobacco leaf paper. It causes many fatal diseases like cancer, heart attack, chronic bronchitis and many other respiratory diseases. One puff of cigarette smoke contains fifteen billion particles of injurious matters. Nicotine is the most detrimental thing in smoking. It hinders the natural flow of blood, reduces the supply of oxygen in the body of the smoker. A smoker runs the risk of being attacked with colon cancer and cardiac arrest at least 7 to 8 times higher than a non-smoker. Besides, smoking pollutes the air. It irritates our eyes, offends the nose and unsettles the mind. Despite its harmful effects, people both educated and illiterate are used to smoking cigarettes. So, we should raise consciousness among people to abstain them from smoking. (Words : 165)

                                     97.Load Shedding

Load shedding is the most talked about problem in our country. It is now a national crisis. There are many causes of load shedding. Inadequate generation of power supply is the main cause of load shedding. Unplanned distribution of electricity is also another cause. Moreover, illegal connections and artificial shortage of production are also responsible for load shedding. Furthermore, stealing electricity in the pretext of system loss is another cause of load shedding. Load shedding creates problems of far reaching consequences in the socio-economic development of the country. Due to load shedding, the entire life-style both domestic and industrial comes to a standstill. Domestic life becomes painful as the housewives grope in the dark in the kitchen. The running mills, factories and industries come to a standstill hampering normal productivity. The students cannot continue their studies and suffer a lot for load shedding. The patients suffer terribly and operations are stopped. The foods kept in the refrigerators get rotten due to load shedding. It is we the human beings who are responsible for load shedding which frustrates personal and national progress. (Words : 181)

                                            98.Traffic Jam

Traffic jam refers to a serious road block when there is a long time of vehicles plying on the road. Now it has become a common scenario of roads and streets in the big towns and cities of our country. Several causes are responsible for this traffic jam. Firstly, most of the roads and streets are narrow and unplanned. Secondly, roads are insufficient in proportion to our population. Thirdly, a lot of unlicensed vehicles ply on the roads. Next, many drivers are not aware of the rules and regulations of driving. Many others are not willing to abide by the traffic rules. Again, many others are prone to reckless driving and overtaking tendency leading to unnecessary traffic jam on the roads. Furthermore, small vehicles like rickshaws, autorickshaws, private cars, hand carts etc also cause unbearable traffic jam. Above all, the number of traffic police is quite insufficient to handle it. Traffic jam causes a lot of problems killing our valuable times. The office-goers, students, patients and general people have to suffer a lot due to traffic jam. But this situation should be handled rigidly for the welfare and smooth movement of the people. (Words : 197)

                                    99.Air Pollution

Air, one of the most important elements of our environment, is getting polluted continuously posing a great threat to our existence. No human or animal can survive without air. Smoke of all kinds is the most common factor for causing air pollution. Man makes fire to cook food, to burn refuse and to melt pitch for road construction. All these create smoke and pollute the air. Smoke emitted from mills, factories, brickfields and industries also cause air pollution. Moreover, motor vehicles like cars, buses and trucks plying on roads and highways also produce a lot of smoke causing air pollution. Furthermore, by burning coal, petrol, diesel and oil, railway engines and power houses create smoke and pollute the air. But the most serious air pollution often occurs in big cities and industrial areas. Air pollution ultimately causes serious kinds of airborne diseases like hyper tension, blood pressure, cancer and so on. Sometimes serious kind of air pollution even leads to death. It is man who can stop air pollution by planting many more trees for a healthier and happier life. (Words : 180)


Eve-teasing has been the most talked topic in our country during the recent years. Usually school or college going girls and working women become victims of this social evil. There are many reasons behind eve-teasing. Firstly, lack of moral values and free exposure to ultra-modern fashion cause eve-teasing. Secondly, want of consciousness of law enforcing agencies is another reason for it. Thirdly and most importantly, gender discrimination is one of the main reasons for eve teasing. The girls and women are usually victimised by teenage boys, rickshaw pullers, bus drivers, street vendors, traffic police and sometimes by the supervisors or colleagues of the working women. Making vulgar comments, whistling, throwing flying kisses and sending SMS or nude picture through mobile phone, e-mail, internet etc are the easiest means that teasers use to harass their opposite sexes. Eve-teasing leaves deep psychological effects on the victims. Eve-teasing increases girls’ drop out rate from schools and colleges. Teased girls are married off before they gain mental and physical maturity. Establishing human rights, empowering rural governance and removing gender disparity could be the effective tools for curbing this social curse. (Words : 186)


Illiteracy is undoubtedly a curse to a nation as it hinders all development works of the country. Illiteracy is the state of being unable to read and write which stands in the way of differentiating between right and wrong. The illiterate people cannot contribute to the welfare and prosperity of the community, let alone the country. For example, the people of Bangladesh are lagging behind in all spheres of development because of a huge number of illiterate people living here. They are devoid of the knowledge of sanitation, malnutrition and family planning. In spite of being an agricultural country, Bangladesh is yet to apply scientific methods of cultivation to boast up her production. As a result, poverty always hangs heavy on her. Again, lack of knowledge of sanitation and malnutrition leads the people to decay and death. Moreover, for lack of knowledge of family planning, population of the country is increasing at an alarming rate. However, illiteracy must be eliminated from the country. Setting up a number of schools including night schools for the adults and anti-illiteracy campaign can solve the problem of illiteracy. (Words : 184)

                          102.Natural Hazards/Calamities

Natural hazards/ calamities pose a great threat to the ecological balance of a country. Natural hazards/calamities such as floods, cyclones, earthquakes and erosion etc. are very destructive by nature. These calamities have negative impact on the life and economy of a country. Flood is the most common devastating force of nature. It usually occurs due to heavy downpour during the rainy season and causes untold sufferings to the people and property. The after effect of the flood is more pathetic. Cyclone also causes a lot of sufferings to the people. But the miseries of severe cyclones like SIDR, Ayla, Hurricane beggar description as they take away a huge number of lives and damage the whole area. Drought, another natural calamity hinders the usual growth of crops and leads the country to hunger and death. Earthquake occurring in a particular area turns it into a desert damaging human lives, animals and destroying homesteads, roads and highways. Bangladesh is also vulnerable to different natural disasters such as floods, cyclones, drought, river erosion, storms and so on. All these disasters cause untold sufferings to the people. (Words : 183)

                                    103.Sound Pollution

There are many causes of sound pollution having harmful effects on human body and mind. Sound pollution occurs when the vibration of sound is harsh, sharp and unpleasant to the ears. Acute sound pollution occurs in towns, cities and industrial areas. There are many causes of sound pollution. Enormous growth of human population and increasing use of machines in industrial works are among the main causes of sound pollution. Hydraulic horns and whistles of different motor vehicles plying on the roads also causes serious sound pollution. The grinding sounds of mills and factories also contribute to sound pollution to a great extent. Listening to music using microphones and loudspeakers, beating various kinds of drums, shouting of slogans on the roads also cause serious harmful sound pollution. Sound pollution causes many fatal diseases like heart attack, hyper tension, blood pressure, deafness etc. The normal growth of the children and the patients in hospitals are greatly affected by sound. It often hinders the students to concentrate on their studies. It is man and the environment. That can avert sound pollution for a healthy and happy life. (Words : 184)

                                     104.Acid Violence

Acid violence is one of the most heinous and atrocious crimes of modern civilization. In most cases girls, women and children are the victims of acid violence. Sometimes this crime is caused due to personal conflict, social cause and family affairs etc. Another cause is rejection of love or marriage proposals by the girls. Besides, in case of delay for paying the dowry, the bride falls a victim to acid throwing. Moreover, when a jilted lover fails to win the heart of his beloved, he takes to acid throwing out of revenge. Again, it so happens that the parents of a girl give her in marriage with another man defying the love affair of their daughter. Then the male lover, finding no other alternative, throws acid on the face of the girl whom he loved dearly a few days ago. The effect of acid throwing is very destructive. In most cases, the victims succumb to injury and even to death. Those who survive, drag a miserable existence. They are either crippled or paralysed. The victims also possess a terrifying and distorted appearance. Sometimes the victims lose their mental balance. (Words : 190)

                                        105.Price hike

Price hike or the increase of price of the daily essential commodities is the most talked about issue at the present time. The price of the daily commodities is soaring sky high to go out of reach of the poor and the lower middle class people of our country. There are a lot of causes behind this price hike. Hoarding of essential commodities by the dishonest businessmen is one of the causes of price hike. Smuggling and black marketing by traders and people in general are also important factors causing price rise. Many dishonest men have earned huge black money through black marketing. This has caused great suffering to the people. Shortage of supply due to low production also accelerates the price hike of essential goods. At present syndicate business has added to this plight. Due to inflation price hike is more acute in our country. As a result of price hike, the poor and the lower middle class people suffer intolerably. Government mechanism to curb price hike is defective. Public awareness against illegal hoarders of the daily necessaries, smugglers and black marketeers can remove this curse from the country. (Words : 190)

                                 106.Climate change

Changes in the earth’s weather including changes in temperature, wind patterns and rainfall are referred to as climate change. It is now a major global concern. Greenhouse gases that include carbon dioxide, methane and CFC are the main causes of this climate change. Our atmosphere which is guarded by an ozone layer resists the entrance of ultra-violet rays from the sun causing greenhouse effect. Climate change is the worst of all the problems that affect all the flora and fauna of the environment. There are many plants and animals that are vulnerable to climate change. The summer and rainy seasons are already prolonging and winter is shrinking. The river banks are being eroded and crop land is being reduced. Besides, saline water is intruding into the rivers in the coastal areas resulting in damage to farm lands. Moreover, floods, droughts and other disasters hit the country more frequently nowadays. Over the past century, sea level has risen by 10 to 20 centimetres as a result of global warming. The Sundarbans, world’s largest mangrove forest is also at severe risk. All these lead to more landless people and climate refugees in the country. (Words : 192)

                                  107.Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic, a fatal and poisonous material, when mixed with water especially tubewell water, causes arsenic pollution. Arsenic is a poisonous white compound of brittle element. Arsenic poisoning occurs when its intake exceeds the limit of tolerance. There are a number of causes of arsenic pollution. Due to some chemical reactions taking place in the underground, the metal arsenic changes into liquid arsenic and pollutes the underground water when extracted via tubewell. Excessive use of tubewell water is also another cause of arsenic pollution. Arsenic poisoning becomes chronic when a small amount of it enters a body repeatedly. It is then converted into less toxic form in the liver and exerted with urine. Arsenic has got some life threatening effects. Arsenic badly affects different parts of the body such as skin, heart, stomach, liver, kidney and bone. It can cause the skin to peel off and can bring about rapid hair loss. Long term poisoning may cause even death. Constant itching, cough and ophthalmia are also signs of arsenic attack. Public awareness and identification of arsenic affected tubewells may avert arsenic pollution to some extent. (Words : 184)

                                     108.Global Warming

There are many reasons of global warming around the world and it has disastrous effects on us. Greenhouse effect is the main cause of global warming. The rise in the atmospheric temperature is known as greenhouse effect. Our atmosphere is guarded by an ozone layer which resists the entrance of ultra-violet rays from the sun. But deforestation around us and the increased amount of carbon dioxide, methane and chloro-floro carbons affect that layer. The heat of the sun enters directly into the atmosphere of the earth. Scientists are worried about this increased heat because it is melting the ice in the polar-regions. If this process continues for a long time, the layer of water in the oceans will rise and flood coastal areas and farm lands of Bangladesh. besides, this will reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wildlife and wilderness. So, greenhouse effect is the main cause of global warming along with deforestation and rise of CFC gas. So, in order to solve this problem, we have to prevent or reduce the amount of emission of greenhouse gases. (Words : 182)

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