Hsc English 1st Praper
(a) What do satellite TV channels stand for? (b) What do you think about them and their bad impacts? (c) Do you think them to be beneficial? If yes, how? (d) How do some channels cause cultural decay and moral degradation? (e) How can we foster and enrich our own culture? (f) How will you positively implement various channels? [DB’13; RB’13; BB ’06]
Satellite TV Channels : A Source of Cultural Interaction
Satellite TV is one of the greatest achievements of modern science. Now, it is regarded as the medium of information, entertainment, telecast, education and many others. It can telecast any programme live from the remotest (`–ieZx©) part of the world. With the help of satellite, world has turned into a global village. Satellite TV has added a new dimension (gvÎv) to our oriental life providing many programmes through different channels. It’s not only a good medium of recreation but also a source of educational knowledge. Different channels telecast various educative dramas, movies, sports, cultural functions, news and documentaries. It brings us the information regarding states, economics, politics, anthropology, geography, science, literature, archaeology and the art and culture of every country of the world. But, on the other hand, many people especially young generations are getting hampered and we all are now forgetting our own customs, traditions, music and culture. Very often obscene (AkÐxj) pictures and vulgar movies and programmes are shown in various satellite channels. Young generations are becoming more and more addicted to them. Moreover, most of us want to follow the dress pattern, hairstyle, behaviour, music and nudity of the westerners. This mentality is leading our young generations to moral degradation (gh©v`vnvwb; c` åóZv). So, we all should be conscious of that. (Words : 222)
(a) What is pollution? (b) What is water pollution? (c) How do human beings pollute water? (d) How do farmers pollute water? (e) How do mills and factories pollute water? (f) What diseases can attack us if we drink polluted water? (g) How can we minimize water pollution? [JB ’13]
Pollution is the process of making the element of environment dirty. The elements of environment such as water, air, soil etc are getting polluted every day. Of all the pollutions, water pollution is the most threatening to our life. Water, a vital element of the environment, is also polluted in different ways. Man pollutes water by throwing waste into it. Farmers use chemical fertilizers and insecticides in their fields. When rain and floods wash away some of these chemicals get mixed with water in rivers, canals and ponds. Mills and factories also throw their poisonous chemicals and waste products into rivers and canals and thus pollute the water. Water vehicles also pollute rivers by dumping oil, food waste and human waste into them. Insanitary latrines and unsafe drains standing on river and canal banks are also responsible for further pollution. Furthermore, Kutcha drains running into the canals and rivers cause water pollution. Clean water is safe for use but polluted water is harmful for man. Water pollution can be prevented in many ways. We suffer from cholera, diarrhoea, dysentery and many other water-borne diseases when we drink polluted water. We should refrain from throwing waste and filth into water to minimize water pollution. However, it is important to note that water is life, but polluted water causes death. (Words : 218)
(a) What is globalisation? (b) What is the positive effect of globalisation? (c) How does it affect the developing countries? (d) How can globalisation be used for the betterment of humanity? [CB ’13]
At present, globalisation is an often-heard term all over the world. globalisation is mainly connected with business, trade and international relations by creating a borderless world. The world has now become a global village. with the development of hi-tech communication, media and rapid transportation facilities, countries of the world become families of the global village. But, in the name of help and co-operation, the industrially developed capitalist countries are exploiting (†kvlY Kiv) the poorer countries in many respects. they are superimposing (Pvwc‡q †`Iqv) globalisation on the poorly educated and poorly trained labour force with poor system of developing countries. The exploited and impoverished workers of the developing countries are no match for a globally powerful capitalism. As a result, the gap between wealth and poverty is ever widening. Besides, under the influence of globalisation, global cultures are steadily getting integrated (GKxf‚Z) with local cultures. It is feared that globalisation will affect our culture adversely by exposing it to foreign and by intruding many foreign customs and beliefs in our culture. But, to make our world a better living place we must ensure solidarity, peace and justice all over the world. Globalisation is a good concept which can bring happiness to every nation only when it can ensure equity everywhere. (Words : 208)
(a) What is dowry? (b) What is the main reason of dowry? (c) Who take dowry and who are the victims of it? (d) How does it affect the whole society? (e) What is your reaction? (f) How can this vice be eliminated?
[BB’13; DinajB ’12; RB ’09; JB ’03]
Dowry is an unexpected custom in our society. Like other social evils, it is a curse. At present, it is practised in both educated and uneducated families. Guardians buy bridegrooms for their daughters by offering money, jewellery and furniture. Greed for money and wealth is the main cause of dowry. Most of the bridegrooms think that it is their right to have money and wealth when they marry because they have a negative attitude towards women. Bridegrooms think that as they provide women with everything, they must pay for the establishment of their husbands. this evil practice affects our society very much. It creates panic in the mind of the guardians who have daughters yet to marry. very often in newspaper, we read about untold torture women have to face for the non-payment of dowry. As a conscious citizen, I greatly oppose this system. It should be eliminated (`–i Kiv) as soon as possible. We have to create awareness among people about its bad effect in the society. Female persons should be aware of their dignity and right. they have to be educated and contribute to their family as much as possible. If this is done, this social curse can be eliminated. (Words : 203)
(a) What is gender equality? (b) What is its importance? (c) What is the condition of gender equality in Bangladesh? (d) What are its barriers? (e) Who or what are responsible for these barriers? (f) How is gender equality related to the overall development in our country? (g) What steps would you recommend to ensure gender equality? [DB ’12]
Gender equality means the practice of treating any gender fairly. It is very important in every society through the whole world. According to the United Nations, gender equality is regarded the first and foremost human right. But in Bangladesh the condition of gender equality is different. In our society we notice that female persons are the worst sufferers of gender inequality. There are many barriers in our country. From the birth of a male child, he gets the most facilities from the society. On the contrary, from the very birth of a female child, gender disparity starts and ends with her death. Our society is dominated by the males. They think that male child will earn money for the family and female child will do only domestic chores. So, male children are always welcomed. There are many reasons for these barriers. The male dominated society is responsible firstly. Then poverty, illiteracy, the disparity of attitude are also responsible for gender inequality or barriers. Gender equality is important for social development. It is not possible for male people to change the socio-economy without gender equality. The old tradition should be changed. Awareness among the general people and the government should be increased. All should work hand in hand to develop our country. (Words : 211)
(a) What is Eve teasing? (b) Who are the common victims? (c) Who are the common eve-teasers? (d) What are the causes of eve-teasing? (e) What are its effects? (f) What measures should be taken against eve-teasing?
[CB ’12; DB ’11]
Eve teasing, often known as “Sexual harassment”, is a regular occurrence for the women and girls of Bangladesh. It is a malpractice of male person and it is inserted upon a female person physically and mentally with a bad intention in different ways. So, if any male person intends to insult the modesty of any female, utters any negative word, makes any sound or gesture or exhibits any object intending that such word shall be heard, or that such gesture or object shall be seen by that very woman is called eve teasing. Extremely restricted mentality and overly conservative attitude on sexuality provoke eve teasing. Lack of education is one of the causes of eve teasing. Lack of moral values and free exposure to ultra modern fashion also cause eve teasing. There are also some impacts of eve teasing. It increases girls’ drop out rate from school. Girls who are teased are also pushed into marriage before they are physically or mentally prepared. Establishing human rights, empowering rural governance & ensuring gender parity could be the effective tools for removing this social curse. Education system must be modified in a way as to promote positive relationship between girls and boys, especially at younger age. (Words : 204)
(a) What kind of family do you live in? Extended or nuclear? (b) Why is nuclear family getting popular day by day? (c) What are the advantages you find in a nuclear family? (d) What are the disadvantages of it? (e) Do you think the society is following right way? [SB ’12; CtgB ’09, ’03; JB ’07]
The Family I Live In
There are two types of family found in our society, one is extended or large family and the other is nuclear or small family. In an extended family people live with their parents, grand parents, uncles, aunts and cousins. Only husbands and wives live with their children in a nuclear family. I live with my parents in a nuclear family. Nowadays nuclear family is getting popularity in our society for various reasons. Now, people want to live in cities as cities provide lots of sources of income. But, life in cities is not so easy now. Even though, they earn much, they cannot maintain a family with eight or nine members. So, they prefer to live in a nuclear family. The members of a nuclear family enjoy some advantages. they lead a life where there is no noise or confusion. they get much time to concentrate on their own work. Children grow up in a suitable environment. But, it has some disadvantages also. members of a nuclear family feel lonely as all of them are busy with their own work. They cannot share their feelings. it makes people self-centered (AvÍ‡Kw›`ªK). But it is the need of modern life to form nuclear family because life has become very busy and competitive now. (Words : 211)
(a) What is liberation war/ war of independence? (b) When did our liberation war happen? (c) What happened in the war? (d) How long did they fight? (e) When did we become free? (f) How do we celebrate our liberation? [JB ’11]
Our Liberation War/War of Independence
Liberation/Independence means freedom. So, liberation war/war of independence means the war which is fought for the freedom of a country from foreign domination. The emergence of Bangladesh is a history of grief (†kvK) and pride. It came into being in 1971 after a great war against the then Pakistani occupying (`L‡j ivLv) forces. After the British, they exploited us economically, socially, politically and above all militarily. But, the heroes of the soil did not tolerate their exploitation. They raised their arms and compelled the occupying forces to leave the country. On March 26, the liberation war started. In this war, thousands of people were killed in the hands of the Pakistani force. The Mukti Bahini fought against them and resisted (cÖwZnZ Kiv) them in land, water and even by air everywhere in Bangladesh. They fought for long nine months against the Pakistanis and made a free country on 16 December, 1971. This is the fastest victory against an occupying force in the world history. We celebrate our liberation with fervour and enthusiasm (cÖej Drmv‡ni mv‡_). We show our respect bowing down our heads in front of the National Memorial at Savar. We organise various seminars, symposiums (mfv, m‡¤§jb) and cultural functions to celebrate this day. (Words : 202)
(a) What was your childhood like? (b) Where did you spend your childhood and how? (c) Who loved you dearly in your childhood? (d) How did your playmates behave with you? (e) When and where did you start your early education? (f) Do you have any bitter experiences? (g) How do you feel when you recollect your childhood days? [DB ’10; JB ’06; SB ’06]
My Childhood Memories
I often remember the memories of my childhood. I was born in a small village named Hulerhat on the bank of the river Kajolia. It was a place of scenic (g‡bvig) beauty. There were many trees, ponds, green fields in the village. I used to pass my childhood days playing with other village children. They all behaved with me with heart. I started my education at the village primary school when I was 6 years old. I have so many sweet memories of my childhood. Green fields, riverbanks were my playgrounds. We passed our time playing in the fields, flying kites in the sky, exploring the jungle, picking up fruits from the trees and so on. An incident of my childhood still haunts (cÖvqk D`q nIqv) me. Once I got lost as I followed a group of people who were rendering songs from door to door. Luckily friend of mine saw me crying and he took me to my home. I embraced (Rwo‡q aiv) my mother and promised not to leave her again. But, my happy days did not last long. My father had to come to town on service purpose and we also came with him. Now, I am a young man but I will ever cherish (jvjb) the sweet memories of my happy childhood spent in the charming environment of my village. (Words : 223)
(a) Can you remember the first day of your college life? (b) How did you feel when you first entered the college campus? (c) How many classes did you attend on that day? (d) What impression did you have about your teachers? (e) What things did you like best about the college? (f) How do you feel when you remember the day? [BB ’10]
My First Day at College
The first day of my college life is one of the few evergreen memories of my life. I got admitted to Faujdarhat Cadet College, Chittagong and was waiting for attending classes with excitement. i was thrilled (wknwiZ nIqv) with joy at 9 am on July 20, 2013 because this was the time I entered the college campus. It is a famous college. i attended five classes that day. The first class was on English taken by a female teacher who had a very strong personality. She was very friendly. Previously, I was anxious about the behaviour of the teachers and after attending her class, all my fears had gone. Then we attended bangla, Physics, chemistry and biology classes. Other teachers were also very friendly. As all of us were new-comers there, we talked to each other and became friends within a short time. All of us visited the library, the laboratory, the auditorium. They were very much resourceful. The library was full of famous books. There were newspapers, magazines for students. The laboratory was also well-equipped. The auditorium was very attractive to look at. then we came the students’ common room. It was a huge room with various items of indoor games. It was a great experience. I will cherish the memory of this day for ever. (Words : 217)
(a) What is meant by premature marriage?(b) Who are the victims of premature marriage?(c) What are the causes of premature marriage?(d) What problems does premature marriage create in society?(e) What suggestions do you have to solve the problem? [CB ’11]
Premature marriage is the marriage of boys and girls who have not yet reached the age of marriage. Although the government of Bangladesh has fixed 18 and 21 years for girls and boys respectively, people especially in the rural areas tend to marry their sons and daughters off earlier than the expected time. Marrying at such a premature age, boys suffer a lot because they have to work hard to run a family. On the other hand, girls suffer even more because they have to risk their lives during premature child birth. Yet the parents of sons marry them off to get dowry from the in-laws. Girls’ parents are often prejudiced against education. They think that the more educated their daughters are, the more dowry they have to give. Some of them even think that girls are born to serve their in-laws. Thus the premature marriage creates a lot of problems in the society. Lack of education is one of the causes of premature marriage. Lack of moral values also causes premature marriage. The media should be active in solving premature marriage. The govt. should take pragmatic steps to remove this evil practice. Last but not the least, raising social awareness can play the key role towards curbing this evil act. (Words : 211)
(a) What is smoking? (b) Why do the people generally smoke? (c) How does one become addicted to smoking? (d) What are the bad effects of smoking? (e) What should we do to stop smoking in our country?
Smoking : A Habitual Sickness
Smoking is a very bad habit which is injurious to health. Inhaling the smoke of burnt tobacco is called smoking. The tobacco can be either burnt in a device called pipe or it can be wrapped and rolled in a piece of tobacco leaf paper. It is a popular belief that inhaling tobacco smoke provides stimulation (D‡ËRbv) though there is no medical evidence (mv¶¨cÖgvY) to this belief. There are numerous bad effects of smoking. It causes respiratory (k¦vmcÖk¦vm msµvš@) problem leading to bronchitis. A smoker suffers from hyper tension, anxiety, digestion (cwicvK) disorder and heart attack. Smokers run the risk of being attacked with colone cancer and cardiac arrest at least 7 to 8 times higher than a non smoker. The decision then should be very obvious. In order to keep our people healthy and working we need to prevent this malady (†ivM, Amy¯’Zv). Government has already prohibited (wbwl× K‡i‡Q) smoking in public places. As smoking causes several chemical changes within human body the impact is far reaching. Once somebody smokes for the first few times there is no coming back. He becomes a slave to this malevolent (¶wZKi) habit. To stop smoking, we should raise consciousness among the people and inform them of the negative effects of it. (Words : 209)
(a) Where is the central Shaheed Minar located? (b) Who was its architect? (c) What do the vertical lines and columns of the Shaheed Minar suggest? (d) What does it stand for? (e) How do you feel standing before a Shaheed Minar? (f) What is its significance in our culture? [DB ’09]
Shaheed Minar is the symbol of our love, sincere interest and supreme sacrifice for our language. It is located in front of Dhaka Medical College. Hamidur Rahman, a famous architect designed this significant monument (¯@¤¢). The vertical lines and columns suggest the loftiness (PgrKvwiZ¡) and grandeur (gwngv) of the people martyred for the cause of language. It stands for the supremacy and sacrifice of life, love of people for their mother tongue. It also conveys the meaning to the people that mother and mother tongue along with the mother land is the most important. One feels magnanimous (gnvbyfe) and bold in thought. It contains all the aspirations of Bengali identity and nationalism. It is a symbol of freedom, strength and unity. We feel the supreme sacrifice of the language martyrs and we should preserve the highness, supremacy of this mother language at any cost. The Shaheed Minar is the most significant emblem of our national life. It represents our victorious history of fight, sacrifice and gains. It has become a part of our political as well as cultural achievement and national source of inspiration. It refreshes our motivation to keep our language clean and safe from the attacks of other languages and cultures. It also re-inspires us to maintain our national brotherhood and cultural cohesiveness. (Words : 215)
(a) What is SIDR? (b) When and where did it attack? (c) How much damage did it cause to life and property? (d) What is your idea about the measures taken by the government? (e) What can the young students do in case of a natural disaster like SIDR? [SB ’08]
SIDR is the name of a cyclone. It was a destructive natural calamity. SIDR means eye. The centre of the cyclone looks like human’s eyes. So, it is named SIDR by climatologists. SIDR breaks all of the previous records of cyclones on speed. On 15th November of 2007 SIDR attacked the southern coastal areas in Bangladesh. More than 10 thousand people have been killed by this SIDR. Thousands of domestic animals, grains, trees, houses and cultivated lands have been destroyed. People of the southern part of Bangladesh especially the people of Bhola, Patuakhali, Barguna, Satkhira, Bagerhat etc. suffered a lot. They lost everything that cannot be minimized yet. Govt. took necessary steps timely to save the people. They alarmed the people early and made a lot of shelters. Young students should come forward to make the common people aware of natural disasters like SIDR. In such a great disaster, they can do something to save the common people from the clutch of natural calamities like SIDR. They can render humanitarian service to minimize the suffering of the affected people. They can stand by the side of the affected people by raising funds and nursing the sick. Along with the government organizations they can devote themselves to serve the victims. They can also help the affected people by supplying necessary things, foods and medicine. (Words : 224)
(a) What do you think about the necessity of education? (b) Can education really remove the darkness of ignorance? (c) How does education promote understanding among people? (d) How can education contribute towards change for the better? [RB ’05]
Necessity of Education
Education is the backbone of a nation. It is a formal process of institutional learning. For the development of the mind and soul of every human being, education is very much essential. it builds the personality of a person and makes his worth to meet challenges. obviously, education removes the darkness of ignorance. an ignorant person is unable to gain knowledge of something. he is unable to gain knowledge from different sources where as an educated person can do. The store of knowledge is open to an educated person. Actually, education is compared to light while ignorance is compared to darkness. Education promotes (ea©b Kiv) understanding among people. It broadens our outlook and makes us aware of the human qualities latent (jyKvwqZ) in our personality. it teaches us patience and universal brotherhood. We become conscious in our duties and responsibilities to our family as well as to our society. Education is a medium (gva¨g) which ennobles our mind and uplifts (DbœZ Kiv) our senses. With this broaden perspectives (m¤¢vebv), we can go towards change for the better. Education itself is a training which always trains us for the best. But we have to be careful of getting proper education. we should give highest importance on proper education. (Words : 207)
(a) Why are games and sports necessary? (b) What type of sports are popular? (c) Do sports help us anyway? (d) How does it help in building of personality? (e) What determines our career? (f) Is physical development necessary? (g) What does it teach in the development of character? (h) What is your remark about games and sports? [JB ’05]
Games and Sports
Health is wealth. No one is able to keep good health without physical exercise. Games and sports are the finest kind of exercise. Exhilarating (DjvmKi) and entertaining games are popular to all. Football, cricket, tennis, basketball, swimming, shooting etc. are common sports. There are a lot of merits of sports. It helps the limbs and muscles of the body to be strong and stiff. It retains (ivLv) the physical fitness as a result of moving, walking and running. it also helps man to be free from anxiety (D‡ØM) and tension. It helps in building up personality. it determines whether a man will have a rigid (`„p) or a flexible (wXjv, AvjMv) personality. it masters qualities like perseverance, co-operation, responsibility, discipline, stamina and obedience. It nurtures (DbœZ Ki‡Z mvnvh¨ Kiv) international fraternity (åvZ…Z¡‡eva) and makes a country known to the rest of the world. Essentially, it is a very profitable vocation. a sportsman can earn a lot of money. It also brings name and celebrity. a sports man or woman can go abroad to compete (AskMÖnY Kiv) in sports there. he or she designates his or her own country there. They can be respected all over the world. But in our country, facilities of sports are not upto the expected level. so, all of us should think of the usefulness of sports and take steps for creating facilities for all. (Words : 229)
(a) Did you ever go on a journey by train? (b) When did you go? (c) What was the occasion? (d) Describe the journey. (e) How much did you enjoy it? [SB ’05]
A Journey by Train I Enjoyed
During the last summer vacation, I along with my uncle made a journey by train from Dhaka to Sylhet. We went there to enjoy the natural beauties of hills and tea gardens. We reached the station in time and got into the train. Fortunately, I got my seat beside the window. When the guard blew the whistle the train began to move, I kept looking outside through the window. The train was passing through paddy fields and other trees. I enjoyed the natural beauties of the passing villages so much that I cannot express it in words. The green fields, cows and the working of farmers in the fields impressed me. when the train stopped at a big station, we ate boiled eggs. We bought some magazines also. Again the train started moving. This time the scenery was more beautiful. it passed through hills. The hills were covered with green tea gardens. My joy knew no bounds at the sight of hills and tea gardens. Soon it became darker. Everything became mysterious (inm¨gq) and also beautiful with the approaching (Avmbœ/Nbvqgvb) evening. At 7 p.m. we reached the station and saw my uncle’s friends waiting for us. We felt relieved and enjoyed the rest of the days very much. It was the most pleasant journey in my life. I will remember the journey forever. (Words : 225)
(a) What does the environment refer to? (b) What elements make up the environment? (c) What is the relation among different elements? (d) What will happen if this relationship is disturbed? (e) What is the necessity of maintaining ecological balance? (f) Do you have any idea about its solution? [CtgB ’04]
Environment and Ecology
The environment refers to the air, water and land in which people, animals and plants live. Human beings, animals, plants, air, water and soil make up the environment. Again different natural forces such as storms, cyclones and earthquakes are also a part of the environment. All these elements and forces are naturally interrelated (cvi¯•wiKfv‡e RwoZ). Their relation to each other and to the surroundings is called ecology which is very much systematic, dynamically balanced. It is like a complex web that links animals, plants and every other life form. If this relationship is disturbed in any way, the whole environment will face a destructive (aŸsmvÍK) change. for example, the destruction (aŸsm) of forests may cause drought (ï®‹Zv) and other natural disasters. Again the emission (wbM©Z nIqv) of carbon dioxide, chloro fluoro carbon creates ecological imbalance. So, maintaining ecological balance is very much essential. But we are not careful enough to maintain this balance. For a safe earth to live in, we must plant more trees, because trees are very important for the ecological balance. besides, we must save wild animals. they are the direct agent of our environment. Moreover, we must be careful about the emission of harmful gases. So, it is our responsibility to prevent (wbe„Ë Kiv) the environment from being spoilt. (Words : 212)
(a) What is a kitchen garden? (b) Where is your one? (c) when are you busy there? (d) What do you cultivate there? (c) How does it help your family? [SB ’04]
A kitchen garden is a garden where we grow different types of vegetables and fruits for the use of our family. A family is greatly benefited by making a kitchen garden very close to its homestead. We have a nice kitchen garden. It is a part of the big flower garden which we have in the southern part of our house. Usually, everyday in the morning and in the afternoon, I am busy in that garden. In the morning, I carry water from the nearest pond and water the plants carefully. In the afternoon, I weed out the weakest and harmful plants. I cultivate various types of vegetables and fruits. Potato, tomato, pumpkin, pepper, cucumber, bean etc. are the main crops in our garden. My father has planted some fruit plants which are yet to grow. We collect necessary vegetables and eat them with great joy. Very often we give vegetables to our neighbours and relatives. they become very happy and we have built a good relation in this way. In fact, the kitchen garden provides (†hvMvb †`qv) us with necessary vitamins and also saves money. besides, working there, we get chance for proper physical exercise and also mental peace and satisfaction. (Words : 202)
(a) What is the name of the zoo you visited? (b) When did you visit it? (c) Where is it located? (d) How big is the area of the zoo? (e) How many kinds of birds and animals did you find there? (f) What were the main attractions of the zoo? (g) How long did you stay there? (h) How was your feeling at that time? [BB ’04]
A Zoo I Visited
The name of the zoo I visited is the Mirpur Zoo. The Mirpur Zoo which is located at Mirpur in Dhaka is the biggest zoo in our country. A few days back, I along with some of my friends visited the zoo. In the morning, we entered into the zoo and spent five hours there. The area of the zoo is about 313 acres and in this huge area, there are about 2500 species (cÖRvwZ) of living birds and animals. While visiting, we saw many birds and animals. The birds were of different sizes and shapes chirping (wKwPi wgwPi kã) melodiously (my‡ijvfv‡e) in their cages. Peacocks, bulbuls, maynas, magpies were very nice to look at. Then we started visiting the animals. Tigers, lions, giraffes, elephants, monkeys were remarkable. In the morning all of them were fresh. When we went near them, they came forward and we watched them closely. During my visit, I enjoyed every minute though many times it occurred in my mind that those birds and animals were chained (LuvPvq e›`x). they did not have that carefree life which they could get in the forests. We got pleasure but they were helpless. After passing five hours there, we became very tired and also hungry. We returned home safely. it was a remarkable visit. (Words : 215)
(a) What’s your idea about leisure? (b) How do village and city people spend their leisure? (c) What are the common sports and pastimes? (d) What do you know about the late winter activities of the people? (e) How do you evaluate leisure? [CB ’03]
Leisure is the period which is spent at one’s own will. In our every day life, we have to be busy most of the time and if we get some moments or more, we pass it in a simple carefree way. We don’t do anything serious in our leisure. People living in villages and cities spend their leisure differently. Most of the male persons in villages spend their time in tea stalls talking among themselves. Female persons gather in one place, talk frankly and try to help each other. But in cities, people usually watch television. They visit zoos, parks and other remarkable places. sometimes, people spend their leisure with sports and pastimes. Rowing boats, swimming, playing and enjoying various games and sports like football, cricket are very much common. Again using computers, listening to music, attending concert, seminar, gardening are very familiar pastimes. Above all, people of both cities and villages enjoy the natural beauties. They come into contact with nature for refreshing their mind. The enchanting (g‡bvig) beauty of the late winter stimulates (RvwM‡q †Zvjv, DÏxwcZ Kiv) people. They travel in the midst of various fragrant (myMÜ, myiwf) flowers. Usually I spend my leisure with my friends. We do different types of creative activities. Actually, leisure refreshes our mind and sooths (cÖkwgZ Kiv) ourselves greatly. (Words : 217)
(a) Do you support unfair means in the examination? (b) Why are you against of it? (c) Why do the students adopt unfair means? (d) What measures have the authorities recently taken to prevent unfair means from the examination? (e) Describe the good effects of the preventive measures. [RB ’03]
Unfair Means in the Examination
To lead a civilized life, everybody needs proper education. unfair means in the examination is a barrier to proper education. But, it is a great regret that many students adopt unfair means in the examination. As a student, I greatly oppose this shameful task because its effect is terrible in one’s future life. Education in student life indicates a gradual development which makes one capable of facing the coming challenges of one’s life. But, copying creates a non-skilled manpower and instigates (NUv‡bv) corruption. Students adopt unfair means for various reasons. In some cases, our educational curriculum is yet based on memorization and students do not try for creativity. They try to memorize. When they fail to do that, they start copying in the examination. Many teachers spend more time to private tuition than to teach in classes. Besides, guardians are not careful about the proper schooling of their children. But, there is a ray of hope that the authorities have recently taken some measures to prevent unfair means from the examination. Nowadays curriculum is revised and it is made practical and creative. Teachers are being trained. Moreover, for adopting unfair means, there is punishment now. So, definitely the effect of these preventive (wbeviK) measures is good. We can hope for a better educated nation now. (Words : 210)
(a) What is social value? (b) How were the social values in the past? (c) How are they now? (d) What are the conditions of the present social value? (e) What are the effects of social values in the present age? (f) How should social values be preserved? [DB ’06]
Social values refer to customs, beliefs, social practices and norms (Av`k©), behaviourial patterns and attitude of a particular social community. Social values shape the life of a person to a great extent. In the past people were very much strict about maintaining social values. Honesty, sincerity, truthfulness, sympathy, fellow feeling, respect for others were considered to be social values. “Honesty is the best policy” was the motto (g–jgš¿) of the day. The dishonest, criminals were held in great contempt (N„Yvi, AeÁvi). But today, because of scientific and technological development, people are getting acquainted with other cultures. They are being educated—all these have lasting influence on their ideas, beliefs and tradition. Nowadays youngers do not respect the elders, people have no fellow-feelings, they are getting involved in crimes, anti-social activities and addiction to drug. These are the signs of people’s loss of the sense of morality which has resulted from social degradation (AatcZb). If it continues, worse days are ahead of us. So, to avoid such an uncongenial situation we all should be careful to preserve our social values. We can do this by raising awareness in people, inculcating the habit of doing good deeds, maintaining moral scruples, detesting vices and corrupt practices. (Words : 204)
(a) What is the name of your city/town? (b) Are you happy living there? (c) Where is it located? (d) What are the facilities you enjoy there? (e) Write about the history regarding your town/city? (f) What are the problems of living in your city? (g) Which one is the worst in your eyes? (h) Depict your own comment on the topic. [RB ’07]
The City/Town You Live In
I am happy and fortunate enough to enjoy a lot of modern facilities and amenities (my‡hvM-myweav hv Rxeb‡K my›`i K‡i †Zv‡j). It is because I am a town dweller. The town I live in is the biggest and most famous in my mother land. It is also the capital city of Bangladesh. The name of this city is Dhaka. Dhaka is situated on the Buriganga and at the central point of the country. The renowned and well known educational institutions, the medical centres, shopping centres, the air-port etc serve the city dwellers very much. Dhaka is called the city of mosques. People of all religions, professions and all regions of the country live in this city. They are provided with all types of modern amenities. It was a very favourite business centre to the Europeans. Dhaka is now bestowed (cwiwPZ) with a lot of problems. It has become a great problem for her to accommodate (gvwb‡q †bIqv) so many people in a small land area. The name of traffic jam terrifies the city dwellers. Sometimes terrorism gets increased to sweep away the peace of mind of the town people. The city is getting more and more polluted day by day. There is almost no open space provided for children to play in my city. But, to the best of my knowledge it is the best city in Bangladesh. (Words : 230)
(a) What do you mean by health? (b) How can a man keep in good health? (c) What is the importance of following the rules of health and cleanliness? (d) What is the value of health especially in student life? (e) What impact do the complexities of life have on our sound health? (f) Do you think, a simple and care-free life is conducive to good health? (g) Depict your own view on ‘How to keep in good health.’ [DB ’04; SB ’07]
How to Keep in Good Health
Health is the greatest wealth in the life of a man. The importance of keeping in good health is precise (h_vh_; wbqgwbô) in every walk of our life. In order to keep in good health first of all one needs to follow the rules of health and cleanliness. It means that he/she must eat a balanced diet and take proper rest. He/She should eat in fixed time. Too much food cannot ensure good health. One should eat as much as one needs. He/She should try his/her best to take fresh and formalin-free food items. He/she must eat seasonal fruits and vegetables. He/ she must go to bed early and rise early. Then, physical exercise plays a vital role in keeping in good health. If he/she does not take part in games and sports, he/she will not be physically sound. After that, one needs to keep in mind that good health does not mean only physical health. Health means the soundness of body as well as the soundness of mind. Without having a sound mind, he/she cannot concentrate on his/her works. The rules of hygiene play a vital role in keeping in good health. He/she must wash his/her body everyday with soap and put on clean clothes. He/She should not use the towel and clothes of others. Before having anything he should wash his hands. (Words : 223)
(a) How did you celebrate the Eid-ul-Fitr this year? (b) What did you find your mother and sisters doing in the morning of the Eid day? (c) What did you do in the morning? (d) What did you find when you went to the Eidgah? (e) What kind of feast was arranged at your residence for this occasion? (f) How did you spend the afternoon? [DB ’03]
Celebration of Eid-ul-Fitr
Eid-ul-Fitr is one of the two religious festivals of the Muslims (a‡g©). We eagerly await this day after having a fasting (†ivhv) for thirty days. This day is celebrated with great religious gravity (agx©q Myi“Z¡) by the Muslims. However, I celebrated this day as other Muslims do. I got up very early in the morning, took my bath, dressed up wearing punjabi, pajama and tupi. The congregation (Dcvmbvi Rb¨ Rgv‡qZ †jvKRb) being over I exchanged greetings with a lot of friends and near and dear ones. In the morning, I found my mother and sister busy with making loaf, shemai and jorda. In the morning, I distributed cash and dress among the poor class people. When I set out for the Eidgah, I discovered many old friends who were behind the curtain for a long time. We expressed our fellow feelings with one another. In that very day we arranged a grand feast (†fvR) to feed the poor people. It was an age old tradition of our family. After saying prayer I returned home. In the afternoon I joined my friends who arranged a reunion (cybwg©jb) meeting. After the meeting we went to the nearby river and passed a few hours there. This is how I enjoyed the day of Eid-ul-Fitr. (Words : 211)
(a) What is a moonlit night? (b) What is its impact on human mind? (c) How does nature look at such a night? (d) How do city dwellers and villagers enjoy a moonlit night? (e) Do you have any memory of it?
A Moonlit Night
A moonlit night is a wonderful and enjoyable presentation of nature. A moonlit night is a great pleasure and source of recreation for the people of almost all ages, tastes and temperaments. The night in which the moon shines brightly in the cloudless clear sky is generally known as a moonlit night. It comes to us with all her stimulus and magnificent (RuvKRgKc–Y©) beauty. In a moonlit night, the moon looks like a disk of dazzling silver and bathes the nature with her pleasant light. People of all ages become enchanted (†gvwnZ nIqv) with its charm. Even, the newly born babies glance at the moon steadily. There are plenty of poems, songs, stories, fairy tales about moonlit nights. Again, some birds and beasts come out leaving their nestling places to relish (Dc‡fvM Kiv) the beauty of the night. Both the city and the village dwellers enjoy the night gossiping, walking here and there. Children greatly enjoy the night playing. During my childhood, I also used to enjoy the night chatting, playing with my mates and that was really fascinating (gy» K‡i Ggb AvKl©Yxq) and excellent and haunting till today. In fine, a moonlit night is a nice gift of nature and it spellbinds (m‡¤§vwnZ Kiv) all through its loveliness. (Words : 210)
(a) What kind of family do you live in, extended or nuclear? (b) What are the advantages you find in an extended family? (c) What are the disadvantages of it? (d) Do you like an extended family? (e) If so, why? If not, why?
I live in an extended family with my parents, two brothers, grandparents and my uncles. It is a family where all members share each other’s feelings. The household activities are also done together. My grandparents are the senior guardians in the family. So, I get not only my parents but also my grandparents and uncles as guardians. I am never lonely. Sometimes guests are available and I have to share my own room and almost in every week we have programmes and celebrations like birthday celebrations and celebrations on good occasions. I feel some problems also being in an extended family, I do not expect any guest at the time of my examination. Besides my privacy cannot be maintained if my room is shared. Sometimes, I feel myself in a cage because I have many guardians and I do not have any scope to decide anything in my own way. I guess it is really one severe (RwUj) problem in an extended family because a child may lose the capacity to decide something himself/herself. Still then I like an extended family for its sharing and fellow feeling. I know life in a nuclear family is sometimes lonely and boring. So, if I get a little privacy and no disturbance (wek„¸Ljv) in my own way of life I will support an extended family. (Words : 220)
(a) What is language? (b) Why is English an international language? (c) Why should we learn English now? (d) What will happen if we do not learn this language? (e) What do you like to say about English?(f) How does your English text book help you to learn English?
English as an International Language
Language is a medium of expressing thoughts, feelings, emotions and passions. English is called an international language because in many countries for a long time English has been being used for international communication. As English is not our first language, we should learn English with rapt (Avweó) attention. we should be aware of the fact that job advertisements nowadays often ask for a good working knowledge of English. In this present stage of It revolution, English is a must to know all the information in the computer for higher education. English helps the business world to communicate across national borders. So, if we fail to get at hand in English, we must lag behind in the present competitive world. For a good command over English, we must realize the necessity of grammar because grammar of any language tells us the forms and structure and the correct use of it. Without grammar, our use of English will be faulty. We need English to get good jobs, to go abroad, to pursue higher studies on science and technology and medicine. As English is a global language we have to learn the four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. We can not keep pace with the modern world if we do not learn English. The present text book helps to learn English. (Words : 220)
(a) When was bangladesh born? (b) whom do we remember and how? (c) How do we celebrate the day every year? (d) How is the day significant to us?
The Victory Day
Bangladesh is not a very aged country though in this short (¯^í) span (cwim‡i) of time many significant events took place in its history. the 16th December is the Victory Day of Bangladesh. The day is a red-letter day in the life history of Bangladesh. On this day in 1971, we gained triumph (weRq) at the cost of a bloodstained war and Bangladesh came into being. About three million people including more than two lac women scarified their lives for the sake of independence of our country. The day reminds us of the sacrifices of our valiant freedom fighters. We commemorate the paramount (Pig) sacrifice of the brave sons who died for the country and pay gleaming (†Kvgj Avfv) acclaim (Awfe›`bv) to their deceased soul. the day begins with gunshot and the whole country wears a festive look. the national flag is hoisted (D‡Ëvjb Kiv) on the top of each house. many meetings, seminars, symposiums and discussions are held. People of all walks of life go to the national mausoleum and offer flowers there as a symbol of our profound homage (m¤§vb cÖ`k©b) to the martyred valiant (exi) soldiers. this day is a day of great joy, hope and inspiration. this victory symbolizes victory against inequity, oppression and falsehood. this day will remain ever fresh and evergreen in the heart of each and every Bangladeshi. (Words : 225)
(a) How is Ekusey Boi Mela? (b) With whom did you go to the book fair? (c) How was the fair premises? (d) Whom did you see there? (e) What did you gather from the fair?
A Book Fair I Visited
During last February I went to visit the Ekusey Boi Mela which was full of events and experiences. The fair took place on Bangla Academy premises. It is the biggest and most gorgeous book fair of the country. I went to the fair with my friends. The premises of Bangla Academy took a festive look. There were a lot of bookstalls beautifully decorated. Visitors were moving from one row to another just like the rows of ants. People were looking for their favourite and chosen books. Some visitors were looking for new publications. We visited a lot of stalls and bought a number of books. Of the books there were story books, science fictions and autobiographies. While we were about to finish our visit, I noticed the great writer Dr. Zafar Iqbal sitting on a chair in front of a stall. I also noticed the great poet Al Mahmud also sitting beside him. Two great personalities were talking with each other and curious people were gathering round them for taking their autograph. At last we finished our visit to the fair and I came back home with a lot of experience and a permanent impression of the fair in my mind. (Words : 201)
(a) What does Bangladesh have? (b) What is happening with our culture? (c) What is the changing trend in our country? (d) By what are people being influenced?
Bangladesh has a very old, rich and distinctive cultural heritage. We have our own language, dress, food habit, manner of eating, manner of speaking, mode of behaviour, games and sports, social values and customs, religion, profession, music, art, literature etc. We have songs based on rural and idyllic picture of life. We have folk songs and local jatra-pala. We have our own marital systems based on religious and social rules. We celebrate the Pahela Baishakh as the Bengali New Year’s Day. We have our food habit of taking rice and fish. The males wear dresses like lungi, shirt and the females wear sari and blouse. We play our own games like Ha-du-du, Gollachhut, Dariabandha, Bowchi, Kanamachhi and many others. However, though we have a rich culture of our own, it is now the blending of cultures of other countries especially of India and western countries. Satellite TV channels are playing an important role in engulfing the old tradition and culture of our country. People are no longer fond of folk songs or idyllic songs. They are more interested in Hindi and English music. Marital systems and celebrations have also been made short. People are being influenced by cultures of other countries in respect of food habit and dress. Thus we see that though Bangladesh has a rich culture of its own, it is being influenced by other cultures. (Words : 228)
(a) What is self-employment? (b) How can a person be self-employed? (c) Does self-employment alleviate poverty and misery?
Self-employment is the best employment that makes a man individually strong. It refers to ‘not working for an employer but finding work for oneself or having one’s own business’. That is, when a man or woman himself/ herself arranges a source of work is called self-employment. There are many ways to be self-employed in Bangladesh such as he/she may be a mechanic, driver, painter, fish cultivator, poultry farmer etc. There are many youth training centres across Bangladesh. Unemployed young people can take training from these institutions to be self-employed. They can get training from government run youth training (hye cÖwk¶Y) centres at low cost. Trained at the centres, they can receive loan for the related business and start working. It is found that, in most cases, they come out successful. To be self-employed is really praiseworthy (cÖksmvi †hvM¨). By such effort, the poor, uneducated and above all educated but unemployed people can make a room in the work force and can change their lot radically. They can be self-sufficient and win poverty. It is true that his/ her job may be petty but not ignoble (j¾vKi; wbP) rather it is more honourable (m¤§vbRbK) and significant than those jobs under an institution either government or non-government or private. In fact, self-reliance is the best reliance. (Words : 214)
(a) What is child labour? (b) What is the condition of the working children? (c) Where are they found working? (d) What hampers their physical and mental health? (e) What are they deprived of?
Child Labour in Bangladesh
Though child labour is severely prohibited by law, it is still prevalent in the third world countries like Bangladesh. Child labour refers to the physical labour done by the children from 8 to 18. The condition of these working children is very painful. They are found working in factories or doing household chores as servants. They are also engaged in fields, shops, restaurants etc. They have to grind bricks and stones. They work as street hawkers. Most of the time they become pickpockets. They also work as a bus conductor, helper, boot polisher and the like. Some of the works are sometimes risky for them, like working in the welding factory. Though they have to work a lot, most of the time they are ill paid. Sometimes children working in different houses are tortured severely which hampers their physical and mental health. They are deprived of proper care, food and medical treatment. There is no denying that child labour should be banned and the govt. as well as the people concerned should take necessary steps to create alternative opportunities. People of all walks of life and the government together should try sincerely to eradicate this problem from our society. Otherwise, this child labour will drag us down to utter degradation. (Words : 210)
(a) What is facebook? How is to stay connected with people using facebook? (c) How can it keep us up to date? (d) What are the disadvantages of it?
Facebook is a very popular social networking site which has both advantages and disadvantages. It is a great way to keep in touch with your family and friends that live far away. With instant messaging and even video chat, Facebook is the perfect environment to stay connected. With the status updates, photos and profile information, it can keep us up to date on the happenings of all of our close ones. Facebook makes meeting new people extremely easy. Using Facebook one can express one’s opinion easily. Facebook has some disadvantages too. It is very easy for cyber bullies to thrive. They can harass and gang up on one person. There aren’t moderators that go around monitoring what people say to each other. Besides, teenagers who spend much time on Facebook, will suffer in the long run as their valuable time for study is not used properly. So there is no denying to say that Facebook has a lot of advantages with some disadvantages too. Active but overt monitoring and open communication about appropriate usage is the key to all the problems. This active role could prevent serious consequences such as depression, anxiety or even suicide. It is also important for parents to stay abreast with online trends and the latest technologies, websites and applications. (Words : 214)
(a) What do you mean by Digital Bangladesh? (b) What are the benefits of Digital Bangladesh? (c) With what will it connect people? (d) What are initially needed for the implementation of this campaign?
‘Digital Bangladesh’ means digitalizing Bangladesh by ensuring an ICT based society where information will be available on line and where all possible tasks of the government and other non-government or semi-government will be performed using digital technology. The benefits of Digital Bangladesh are many. If we can establish a digital Bangladesh, corruption will be absolutely eradicated. It will save people’s time and money and will make people more enterprising. It will connect people with the whole world economically, politically, socially, academically and even culturally. It will modernize banking and financial activities. Agriculture, health, education, commerce all these sectors will be highly benefited by making Bangladesh a digital one. The government has to take certain initiatives for implementing this dream. First of all, uninterrupted power supply has to be ensured. We have to develop computer network infrastructures throughout the country. We also have to train our people to acquire ICT skill and ensure equitable access to digital governance services by all strata of the society. It will be no exaggeration if we say that the implementation of a digital Bangladesh can help our country make progress in all sectors by leaps and bounds. It is hoped that Bangladesh will be fully digitalised by 2041. (Words : 203)
(a) What do we know by reading newspapers? (b) Why do people read newspaper? (c) How does newspaper help the people of different strata? (d) What are the drawbacks of newspaper? (e) How does misunderstanding take place through newspaper?
Importance of Reading Newspaper
Reading newspaper is a good habit which provides us to know a lot of essential things of home and abroad. People read them for both pleasure and information. A politician can learn about political situations. An economist and a businessman can be aware of the economy and business. People interested in sports and games can learn about the sports-world. Students can also learn many things from the pages of newspapers that fulfill their thirst for knowledge. The film fans go through the cinema page to get the thrill of the showbiz world. From the advertisement column the job seekers and traders get useful hints and details. In fact, by reading newspapers we can be up-to-date and we need it in order to face the competitive changing world. However, sometimes a newspaper misleads people. Some of the newspapers publish news supporting political parties. Sometimes they write columns to gain benefits from the ruling party. For this, misunderstanding takes place and many unexpected incidents happen. So, we can say that though a newspaper has some disadvantages, it has a lot of advantages too. On the whole, newspaper reading is a very good habit. In order to keep ourselves up-to-date with news and views, we should read newspaper daily (Words : 208)
(a) How is a winter morning? (b) Why do the poor people and slum dwellers suffer in a winter morning? (c) What do the children and old people do in the villages? (d) How is the scenery of the town in winter morning?
A Winter Morning
A winter morning is both enjoyable and distressful. It is naturally a very cold morning. There is dense fog all around. Sometimes the fog is so dense that the sun rays can’t get through it. Nothing can be seen even at a little distance. Everything looks hazy. The sun seems to rise late. Dew drops fall at night. When the morning sun peeps, they look like glittering gold on grasses and leaves. It is pleasant to the rich but curse to the poor. The poor village people and the slum dwellers in cities suffer greatly for want of warm clothes. Farmers have to go to the fields with their materials. The workers of low classes have to go to their workplace in the morning. In the villages, children and old people gather straw and make fires to warm themselves. The old people bask in the sun or warm themselves beside fireplace. In the village market, some people come to sell ‘date juice’. The scenery of towns is totally different from villages. The people of the town get up from bed a bit late. They also enjoy the winter morning. Thus a winter morning is not only enjoyable but also distressful to people. (Words : 202)
(a) When did you experience a stormy night? (b) How was the day? (c) How was the sky? (d) What happened when the storm had started?
A Stormy Night
A stormy night is very horrible for the rural people and especially those living in thatched huts of our country. Last year I had a terrible and devastating experience of a stormy night. It was the Bangla month of Baishakh. One day in the afternoon, I went to a local market with my uncle to buy fish and other things. The day was very hot. All on a sudden, the wind dropped and the weather became uncanny. The northern sky began to grow dark and a big cloud began to move fast towards the south. My uncle told me to follow him fast. Within a few minutes there were heavy lightning and thunderbolts along with storm. By that time, the whole area was completely dark and nothing was clearly visible. But the light of frequent lightning was making everything clear to see. Before my own eyes I saw a big jackfruit tree being uprooted. It made a great cracking sound. After a while we reached home and took shelter in our sitting room. The storm continued for two hours. After a period of massive devastation, the storm subsided. Many a day has passed but I can never forget the memory of the stormy night. (Words : 204)
(a) How is a rainy day? (b) How are the roads and paths on a rainy day? (c) How is a rainy day for poor people? (d) What do the students and rich people do in a rainy day?
A Rainy Day
A rainy day is a day on which it rains in torrents continuously. The day is dull and gloomy. The sky remains cloudy all day long. The sky is not seen. Sometimes it rains heavily; sometimes it drizzles and sometimes gusts of wind blow. The heavy downpour is associated with roars of thunder, flashes of lightning and stormy wind. Nobody can go out without an umbrella. Water stands on roads and roads become muddy and slippery. Sometimes people slip and fall on the muddy road. Rivers, tanks and canals swell up. Roads and paths become muddy and impassable. Many people walk along the road with shoes in hand and clothes folded up. A rainy day is bad for poor people. The day labourers cannot go to work. So they don’t earn any money and may remain unfed. Students enjoy a holiday at home. The rich people who have no urgent work enjoy the day at home. They entertain themselves with rich dishes like bhuna khichuri, polao etc. The rain washes away dirt and dust and makes the soil soft. The farmers can prepare the fields for sowing seeds. Thus, though a rainy day has some negative aspects, it has positive effects too. However, a rainy day is not pleasant at all. (Words : 210)
(a) When did you go on a picnic? (b) Where did you go? (c) What did you do after reaching the spot? (d) When did you take your lunch? (e) What were there in the food items? (f) What recreational activities did you perform there? (g) When did you start for home?
A Picnic I Enjoyed
Last winter I went on a picnic which was full of enjoyment. We went to the National Park. Some of my classmates arranged the picnic. We were fifteen in number. We hired a microbus earlier. Within half an hour we got out of the city. We were all singing inside the micro. At last at about 10 am, we reached the grand spot. After reaching we finished our breakfast. We did not take any cook with us. Two of our classmates Rana and Kamal took the charge of cooking. Sohel and I dug a small hole to make a temporary cooker. We all started helping Rana and Kamal. Some of our friends fetched water from nearby sources. Others helped to prepare onion, garlic and other spices. At about half past 1 pm, the dish was ready. Everyone felt quite hungry. So, I started serving the prepared food. There were polao, roast, beef, salad etc. We finished our feast and retired to rest for about half an hour. One of our friends recited a great poem of Jibanananda Das. Ripon presented a joke on a voracious eater. Sumon who is a good singer presented two songs of Nazrul. We started for home at 5 pm after taking our tea. We enjoyed the picnic most and it is really a memorable day for me. (Words : 222)
(a) What do you mean by good manners? (b) How is a well-mannered person treated? (c) How is a good mannered person? (d) How is an ill-mannered person? (e) How is he treated?
The term ‘manners’ means the behaviour that is considered to be polite in a particular society or culture. Manners can be good or bad. For example, it is a bad manner to speak with food in one’s mouth. Manners vary from culture to culture and from society to society. Good manners are the external expressions of one’s inner goodness and education. It is a person’s positive way of behaving towards others. A person is judged by his manners. Good manners enrich the personality of an individual. A well mannered person is liked by most of our people and can prosper in life. Good manners enhance his value and make him a worthy human being. A good mannered man is polite and courteous. He respects the views and opinions of others although they differ from his own. He listens patiently to what others have to say. He neither uses harsh words to others nor does anything that may offend others. An ill mannered man is rude and rough. He has no respect for the feeling of others. He shows bad manners in various ways. A man of unpolished manners is not liked by anyone. Everybody hates him. Good manners make life pleasant, smooth and easy. Good manners do not cost anything but they gain for us love and respect. (Words : 218)
(a) What is hobby? (b) What is your favourite hobby? (c) Why is it your favourite hobby? (d) How does it help you?
Hobby is a pleasant pastime. It means a favourite occupation of a man. But it is not his main business. Gardening is my favourite hobby which gives me much pleasure at my leisure. I have a small garden in front of our house. I work there in the morning and evening. I have planted many kinds of flower plants in my garden. I also grow vegetables there. In the morning I water the plants, make the soil loose and weed out the grass of my garden. Every afternoon or evening, I spend half an hour in the garden. I take care of the plants, water them again and also repair the fence if damaged. The rose, the beli, the sheuli, the dahlia etc. grow in my garden. When the flowers bloom, my joys know no bounds. On holidays, I work longer in my garden. Sometimes my friends, neighbours and relatives visit my garden. They become very glad to see my garden and appreciate my work very much. Gardening gives me recreation and amusement. It makes me forget my worries and anxieties. It relieves me from my routine bound work. Thus I get much pleasure from my hobby which is the most valuable thing. (Words : 203)
(a) What do you mean by traffic jam? (b) Where is traffic jam common? (c) What are the causes of traffic jam? (d) How does it affect the city dwellers? (e) How can it be controlled?
Traffic jam refers to a serious road block when there is a long line of vehicles plying on the road. Now it has become a common scenario of roads and streets in the big towns and cities of our country. Thus it has posed a major problem for the people. Several causes are responsible for this traffic jam. Firstly, most of the roads and streets are narrow and unplanned. Secondly, roads are insufficient in proportion to our population. Thirdly, a lot of unlicensed vehicles ply on the roads. Next, many drivers are not aware of the rules and regulations of driving. Many others are not willing to abide by the traffic rules. Again, many others are prone to reckless driving and overtaking tendency. Furthermore, small vehicles like rickshaws, auto rickshaws, private cars, hand carts etc also cause unbearable traffic jam. Above all, the number of traffic police is quite insufficient to handle it. Traffic jam causes a lot of problems killing our valuable times. The office-goers, students, patients and general people have to suffer a lot due to traffic jam. But this situation should be handled rigidly for the welfare and smooth movement of the people. Widening of roads and streets, introduction of one-way movement of vehicles, removal of unlicensed vehicles and imposition of strict traffic rules can help the people live a better and smoother civic life. (Words : 227)
(a) What is air? (b) How is it polluted? (c) What is the most common factor for air pollution? (d) Where does air pollution occur most? (e) Who can stop air pollution and how?
Air, one of the most important elements of our environment, is getting polluted continuously posing a great threat to our existence. No human or animal can survive without air. This essential element of our environment is getting polluted in various ways. Smoke of all kinds is the most common factor for causing air pollution. Man makes fire to cook food, to burn refuse and to melt pitch for road construction. All these things create heavy smoke and pollute the air. Smoke emitted from mills, factories, brickfields and industries also cause air pollution. Moreover, motor vehicles like cars, buses and trucks plying on roads and highways also produce a lot of smoke causing air pollution. Furthermore, by burning coal, petrol, diesel and oil, railway engines and power houses create smoke and pollute the air. But the most serious air pollution often occurs in big cities and industrial areas. Air pollution ultimately causes serious kinds of airborne diseases like hyper tension, cancer and so on. Sometimes serious kind of air pollution even leads to death. We must stop air pollution to keep the world a habitable place. It is man who can stop air pollution by planting many more trees for a healthier and happier life. (Words : 204)
(a) What is illiteracy? (b) Why are the people of Bangladesh lagging behind? (c) What are the adverse effects of illiteracy? (d) How can illiteracy be eliminated?
Illiteracy is undoubtedly a curse to a nation as it hinders all development works of the country. The progress of a country can not be thought of keeping its people illiterate. Illiteracy is the state of being unable to read and write which stands on the way of differentiating between right and wrong. The illiterate people cannot contribute to the welfare and prosperity of the community, let alone the country. For example, the people of Bangladesh are lagging behind in all spheres of development because of a huge number of illiterate people living here. They are devoid of the knowledge of sanitation, malnutrition and family planning. In spite of being an agricultural country, Bangladesh is yet to apply scientific methods of cultivation to boast up her production. As a result, poverty always hangs heavy on her. Again, lack of knowledge of sanitation and malnutrition leads the people to decay and death. Moreover, for lack of knowledge of family planning, population of the country is increasing at an alarming rate. However, illiteracy must be eliminated from the country so that we may stand up with dignity among the nations of the world. Setting up a number of schools including night schools for the adults, training programmes for family planning, launching scientific method of cultivation and anti-illiteracy campaign can solve the problem of illiteracy. (Words : 222)
(a) What is email? (b) What is needed to access email? (c) What are the advantages of email? (d) How does email become easy in transferring files?
Usefulness of E-mail
E-mail or Electronic mail is one of the many modern devices of communication of textual message via electronic means. A personal computer, a modem and a telephone connection are needed for email. This is not only a quick, easy and relatively cheap way to keep in touch with family and friends, it has also become an essential tool of business. E-mail has many advantages or usefulness. Firstly, it reduces the use of paper in offices and business concerns. Internal memos and reports can be exchanged electronically without using paper. Secondly, being a personal communication, email turns out to be a cheaper alternative to telephone conversation. Thirdly, it eliminates the time spent in establishing phone calls. Fourthly, it permits communication between two individuals or parties without the parties actually being present simultaneously. Next, privacy is ensured as the mail is delivered to an individual mail box. Moreover, it becomes very easy to transfer important files, documents and photos etc instantly without physically going to anywhere. So, e-mail service is an important service of our modern communication. It maintains our private, social and official network in a powerful and effective way. In a word, we cannot think of the modern life without using e-mail. (Words : 202)
(a) What do trees and plants supply? (b) What is the most vital thing to survive? (c) How far is tree helpful to us? (d) Where should we plant trees? (e) Why is tree plantation necessary?
Since the dawn of civilization man has a close relation with nature. Man has made friendship with trees. As such, trees play an important role in our life and economy. Planting trees is a noble work as trees and plants supply oxygen, the most vital thing for our survival. Besides, they are a great source of food and vitamins. Trees also provide us with fruits, flowers and timber for furniture. They give shade and shelter to many people. They make the land fertile and save land from erosion. They attract rains, prevent drought, control flood and maintain ecological balance. All these things will be hampered, if there is lack of sufficient trees. Now a days, Bangladesh has been facing drought, excessive rainfall and floods because of tremendous shortage of her forests. We should therefore, make it a point to plant more trees than we cut down. Plenty of seedlings and saplings need to be planted on both sides of roads and in the unused barren lands around our houses. It is impossible to describe the importance and uses of trees in words. They are a part and parcel of our day to day life. In fact, tree plantation is necessary for the maintenance of ecological balance. (Words : 206)
(i) Who are called street children and why? (ii) How do they earn their livelihood? (iii) Where do these children live? (iv) What do they usually prefer as a means of earning? (v) How can their condition be improved?
Street Children or street urchins are familiar figures in the streets of the third world country like Bangladesh. Most of them are the abandoned children of their parents. They are rootless. These are floating children of a country. They do not know about the whereabouts of their parents, their place and date of birth. Many of them are orphans. Generally they earn their livelihood by begging, stealing, cheating, selling flowers and doing the job of wage earners. But sometimes some poor parents make their children work in the streets. These street children live in the dirty slums, on the roadside pavements without any protection against rough weather. They sleep under the open sky. They also work as garbage collectors, porters and rickshaw pullers. Sometimes they beg for food. They are deprived of education, health care and nutrition. Though they are abandoned children, they are human beings. They are the to be citizens of our country. They have some basic rights to live, to enjoy, to survive in peace and to receive education. It is our duty to ensure their rights. The government and the people in general should do something so that these helpless and homeless children can taste the sweetness of life. (Words : 203)
(a) What is a library? (b) How is your college library? (c) Where is it located? (d) Is there any reading room attached to it? If yes, how is it? (e) Who maintains the activities of the library? (f) How are books issued?
Our College Library
A library is a part and parcel of an educational institution. We are really proud of having a very rich library in our college. Our college library is a great attraction for us. It is said that a library is a storehouse of knowledge which can help a man to satisfy his desire for knowing the unknown. Our college library has also a very rich collection of books on various subjects namely novels, fictions, story books, poetry books, plays, autobiographies and periodicals- all arranged in a systematic way in our well decorated library. Books on religion and sports are also available here. Our college library is housed on the 2nd floor of our academic building. Attached to the library there is a well furnished reading room for the students and the teachers. A pin drop silence prevails in the reading room. An efficient and well qualified librarian handles the activities of the library. He is assisted by three peons who are very expert in finding out books to the readers. There exists a calm, quiet and serene atmosphere in our library. Books are issued against library cards. In fact, our college library is a part and parcel of our college life. (Words : 201)
(a) What do you mean by patriotism? (b) What does it inspire? (c) What does patriotism teach a man? (d) Who is a true patriot? (e) How is an unpatriotic man treated in the society? (f) Give some examples of patriots of this sub-continent.
Patriotism, an inherent quality in a man, is one of the noblest virtues. It means love for and devotion to one’s country. It inspires a man to do everything just and fair for the well-being of the country. Love for one’s own country purifies one’s mind, removes the narrowness of heart and helps one to be selflessly inspired. Patriotic zeal makes a man dutiful, energetic and enthusiastic. Patriotism teaches a man fellow feeling, fraternity and love and sympathy for countrymen. A patriot does not hesitate even to sacrifice his own life for the cause of his country. A true patriot is a selfless lover of his country. So, he is praised and honoured by his countrymen. On the other hand, an unpatriotic man is self-centred. So, he is hated by all. He may have high titles, immense wealth, high social prestige and noble birth, but despite his worldly achievement, he remains a worthless person. An unpatriotic man dies a double death. On the contrary, a patriot is immortal and remains in the hearts of the people even to face any odd challenge as fleeing or trivial. Titumir, Tipu Sultan, Isa Khan, Khudiram, Surja Sen, Pritilata set up glaring examples of patriotism in this sub-continent. (Words : 204)
(a) What is a national flag? (b) When did Bangladesh get its national flag? (c) What is its size and colour? (d) What does the colour of the national flag of Bangladesh symbolize? (e) What does it stand for? (f) When and where is it hoisted? (g) How do we feel seeing our national flag?
A national flag is the symbol of independence and sovereignty of a free country. Every free nation of the world has its own national flag. Similarly, Bangladesh has also a national flag as she is an independent and sovereign country. Bangladesh got this national flag on December 16, 1971 after a nine-month long valiant struggle of our heroic freedom fighters with the occupied Pakistani army. The flag is rectangular in size having a proportion of 10 : 6. There are two colours in our national flag – bottle green and red. The green colour of our flag stands for everlasting youth, freshness and vigour of the nation. It also symbolizes the greenery of Bangladesh. The deep red round colour part symbolizes the rising sun of independence. It also stands for the supreme sacrifices of our heroic freedom fighters who laid down their lives for the cause of their motherland. The flag is hoisted everyday on top of government buildings, educational institutions and offices. It is hoisted everywhere on the Independence Day and the Victory Day. Besides, it is hoisted half mast on national and international mourning days. Whenever we see our national flag flying, our mind is filled with joy and hearts swell in pride. We feel proud of our national flag. (Words : 211)
(a) What does early rising mean? (b) What are the benefits of early rising? (c) What does early rising remind? (d) How can an early riser become healthy, wealthy and wise?
The habit of early rising provides a lot of benefits to the early riser. It is really a very good habit for a human being. A man who rises early in the morning can from many other good habits. All these good habits can lead him or her to the zenith of success. It is of special use to a man in various ways. It is essential for maintaining good health. Firstly, an early riser can take some exercises daily or a walk in the morning fresh air by the river side or in the open field. The morning air full of oxygen refreshes his body and mind. Secondly, he can enjoy the calm and serene atmosphere everywhere. Thirdly, he can enjoy the beauty of nature full of colourful flowers, green fields and the chirping of birds. All these make an early riser cheerful and healthy. Fourthly, he can start his daily work earlier without any worry or haste. Thus he gets enough time to work, earn more and become wealthy. The habit of early rising reminds everybody of the creator and one feels like praying to God. Thus he becomes wise. So, the habit of early rising is the source of health, wealth and wisdom. (Words : 206)
(a) When does sound pollution happen? (b) Where is sound pollution very acute and why? (c) What are the causes of sound pollution? (d) What are the effects of sound pollution? (e) How can sound pollution be removed?
There are many causes of sound pollution having harmful effects on human body and mind. Sound pollution occurs when the vibration of sound is harsh, sharp and unpleasant to the ears. Acute sound pollution occurs in towns, cities and industrial areas. There are many causes of sound pollution. Enormous growth of human population and increasing use of machines in industrial works are among the main causes of sound pollution. Hydraulic horns and whistles of different motor vehicles plying on the roads also cause serious sound pollution. The grinding sounds of mills and factories also contribute to sound pollution to a great extent. Listening to music using microphones and loudspeakers, beating various kinds of drums, shouting of slogans on the roads also cause serious harmful sound pollution. Sound pollution causes many fatal diseases like heart attack, hyper tension, blood pressure, deafness etc. The normal growth of the children and the patients in hospitals are greatly affected by sound. Unmelodious and discontented sound often hinders the students to concentrate on their studies. It is man and the environment that can avert sound pollution for a healthy and happy life. The responsible authority of the government should take proper steps to reduce sound pollution to the limit of tolerance. (Words : 206)
(a) What is E-learning? (b) How is its content delivered? (c) What things are included in it? (d) What are the uses and effects of it?
E-learning or electronic learning refers to using electronic applications and processes to learn. E-learning applications and processes include Web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video tape, satellite TV, and CD-ROM. E-learning was first called “Internet-based training then “Web-Based Training”. Today we will still find these terms being used. E-learning can be CD-ROM-based, network-based, intranet-based or internet-based. It can include text, video, audio, animation and virtual environments. It can be a very rich learning experience that can even surpass the level of training we might experience in a crowded classroom. It’s self-paced, hands-on learning. The quality of the electronic-based training, as in every form of training, is in its content and its delivery. E-learning can suffer from many of the same pitfalls as classroom training, such as boring slides, monotonous speech, and little opportunity for interaction. The beauty of e-learning, however, is that new software allows the creation of very effective learning environments that can engulf us in the material. We’ll use software from Trainersoft as an example to show us how the process works. E-learning is such a process through which we can learn many things staying at home. So we should receive the blessings of this method. (Words : 210)
(a) What do you mean by punctuality? (b) What are the benefits of punctuality? (c) What happens to an unpunctual man? (d) What are the effects of unpunctuality? (e) What should be done to maintain punctuality?
Punctuality means to do the duty in its proper time. It is a very essential quality of life. It is considered to be the noblest of all virtues. It is the mark of a civilized and cultured people. It is the habit of doing things in correct time. Doing things in time, thus, saves us from unnecessary troubles. Our life is short but art is long. So we have to do a lot of works within a limited time. If we perform our duty in proper time, we can do many things. But if we leave today’s work for tomorrow, it may so happen that we may not have time to do it and suffer in the long run. There are many advantages of punctuality. It gives discipline to life. Next, it dispels laziness and removes our take it-easy-attitude. A punctual person always gets recognition and social acceptance. Therefore, punctuality can make us socially acceptable people. It provides ample time to do our work correctly and properly. Doing things hurriedly or haphazardly can have disastrous effects. Punctuality is the precondition of being fully successful in life. Want of punctuality reveals want of culture. All of us are not born with the virtue of punctuality. We have to cultivate it painstakingly. Only constant, vigil and practice can implant this virtue. (Words : 219)
(a) What is meant by global warming? (b) What is the main cause of global warming? How does it occur? (c) What will happen as a result of long term global worming? (d) What should be done to solve this problem?
Global warning is one of the most talked topics of the present world. There are many reasons of global warming around the world and it has disastrous effects on us. Greenhouse effect is the main cause of global warming. The rise in the atmospheric temperature is known as greenhouse effect. Our atmosphere is guarded by an ozone layer which resists the entrance of ultra-violet rays from the sun. But deforestation around us and the increased amount of carbon dioxide, methane and chloro fluoro carbons affect that layer. The heat of the sun enters directly into the atmosphere of the earth. Scientists are worried about this increased heat because it is melting the ice in the polar-regions. If this process continues for a long time, the layer of water in the oceans will rise and flood coastal areas and farm lands of Bangladesh. besides, this will reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wild life and wilderness. So, greenhouse effect is the main cause of global warming along with deforestation and rise of CFC gas. So, in order to solve this problem we have to prevent or reduce the amount of emission of greenhouse gases. We should give it the highest importance to save the world. (Words : 207)
(a) What role does a woman play in the development of a country? (b) What are the traditional roles of women? (c) How do we know that their role is changing now? (d) What are the women doing now? (e) What should be done to improve their contribution to the society and country?
Changing Role of Women
No nation can achieve success without the participation of women in any society. Women can play a vital role in their family as well as in the society. They perform the duties of a mother, a wife, a home maker etc. It is a common belief that women should do these traditional duties. It is very encouraging to observe that women are no more confined (mxgve×) within their homes. They are no more only mother and home maker, they are no more dependent on men. Their role is changing gradually. It is noticed with pleasure that the very old idea that women for birth and men for field is being changed. Women are getting educated. They have started earning and contributing to the family income. They are also participating in hard work, both official and unofficial. They are participating in armed forces. Women are becoming pilot, and they are also conducting business. So, the contribution of women is no more negligible. This situation makes us very hopeful about the future. So, our women should take proper education and acquire (AR©b Kiv) efficiency (`¶Zv). People of every walk of life should come forward to help and encourage women to change their traditional roles and by doing so they can wipe out poverty and develop their own nation and fate. (Words : 218)
(a) What is street accident? (b) Where do the street accidents generally take place? (c) What are the causes of street accidents? (d) What do people generally lose in the accidents? (e) How can this problem be solved?
Street accident is the most vulnerable, unexpected, intolerable incident in human life. It usually happens in a sudden happy moment and turns the happiness into sorrow and sufferings. Nowadays, Bangladesh becomes one of the most accident prone countries where generally, this bad incident happens mostly. It generally takes place on the High Streets, where all the vehicles are always in a hurry. All on a sudden, this busy road turns to a pathetic place holding some dead and injured. Street accident caused this kind of unexpected incident but if we find the reasons of this, then, at first the ignorance of traffic rules is found. Always we ignore the traffic rules as if we love to do it and it causes accident. Most of the vehicles are nearly damaged but they are on road, the drivers are not well trained and not sincere to their duty etc. Because of these above mentioned reasons, street accident usually happens. So people lose their life, the most valuable thing, property and so many important things. And to solve this, some attempts should be taken by the government and individual alike. Making the traffic rules strict, we should make people aware of it and in all, individual should take care of these rules and maintain it. (Words : 212)
(a) What does Baishakhi mela mean? When does it occur? (b) What are the attractions of Baishakhi mela? (c) How did you feel when you visited a Baishakhi mela? (d) How did the Baishakhi mela work as a market for cottage industries? (e) What things did you enjoy in the mela?
Baishakhi Mela I Visited
Last year I went to the Baishakhi Mela at Ramna. I went there with my classmates. When we entered the fair, it was evening. I was surprised to see the decoration of the fair. The whole area was decorated with colourful lights and festoons. The environment of the fair charmed me a lot. There were stalls of earthen pottery, cosmetics, sweetmeats, bamboo flutes, toys, traditional handicrafts and so on. I also saw some stalls of watered rice and our national fish. Young girls wearing white and red coloured mixed sarees were helping the customers there to buy something. Circus, merry-go-round (Nagordolla), puppet show, magic show etc. were the main attractions of the fair. There were also arrangements of Bangla folk songs like Zaree, Saree, Polligeeti etc. The fair also worked as a market for cottage industries. The artisans, potters and weavers were encouraged by it. The security of the fair was very praiseworthy. A lot of police and volunteers were appointed there. Moving around the fair I along with my friends saw everything. We ate many rare sweetmeats. I felt very pleased going to the fair. There I saw people of all ages and religions. I look upon the fair as a symbol of our national unity. (Words : 207)
(a) Who is your favourite teacher? (b) Which subject does he teach? (c) How does he teach? (d) What is the speciality about his teaching? (e) How does he treat students? (f) Why do you like him? (g) Do you want to be a teacher like him?
My Favourite Teacher
Mr. K. Rahman is my most favourite teacher. He teaches us English. He has a unique quality to teach English. He presents his lesson in the class in a fantastic way that attracts all students. His nice pronunciation and art of speaking make the students spell-bound to give full attention to his lecture. But he is very easy and lucid in his expression. He is quite active in the classroom with his movements and sayings. He gives us many valuable suggestions. Students always become active participants of his class. He usually shares his own ideas and views with the students through instructions and interrogations. He has an extra-ordinary ability to explore the potentials of students. He never discourages his students by attacking them on any ground. It is his most uncommon quality that students praise significantly. He is always regular and punctual in his classes. He makes his lessons very easy and interesting. With an extra-ordinary depth of knowledge in his subject he is an excellent teacher. He is honest, sincere and responsible and with all his good qualities he has become a great personality in our college. In fact, his greatness has created a sense of inspiration to me. Now I often dream to be a teacher in future like him. Truly I like my teacher so much. (Words : 219)
(a) What are the main religious groups living is Bangladesh? (b) How do they live in the country? (c) What sort of relationship do they maintain? (d) What are their celebrations? (e) How do they observe them?
Festivals in Bangladesh
There are several popular festivals in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is mainly a Muslim country. But there are other religious groups living in the country as well. They are Hindus, Christians, Buddhists. Of course, a number of tribal people live in different areas of the country. There is no trace of division among the groups. Each group of people enjoys the same kind of social and national identity, that is, Bangladeshi. They have equal rights to the state facilities. The lifestyle of all the groups is almost the same irrespective of their religious identity. This unique relationship is reflected on how they celebrate their respective religious festivals. People of one religious group participate in the religious festival of other religious groups and enjoy it. Even in most cases one group assists the people of other groups in arranging their festivals. It happens especially when people of small religious groups arrange their religious festivals. For example, when the Hindu community arranges their Puja festivals, a lot of Muslims and other religious groups join them. The Hindus and other religious groups also enjoy the Eid festival of the Muslims. When the Christians arrange their Christmas, people of other religious groups participate in the festival and enjoy greetings to each other. So the festivals are commonly popular in Bangladesh. (Words : 214)
(a) When is a teacher regarded as a good teacher? (b) How does a good teacher approach students? (c) What does a good teacher do in the classroom? (d) How does a teacher become a good skilled teacher? (e) What does a good teacher do for the society? (f) How is a good teacher honoured in the society?
A Good Teacher
A teacher is one who proves herself/himself very much useful and ideal to the students. Actually a good teacher possesses a number of good qualities. She/he is a person of great learning. She/he appears before the students as a great personality with immense knowledge in various subjects of interest. Students usually take her/him with great respect and confidence. As she/he builds up the career of the young generation, she/he must be very much loving to them. A good teacher is always curious about the students. She/he finds out the creative sides of the students and stirs their potentialities. She/he never likes passive students in the classroom. She/he always tries to stimulate students so that they contribute to the development of the class activities. By making them competent and happy with their lessons a good teacher makes them confident of their worth. She/he wants to make her/his students skilled in practical application of the lessons. She/he undergoes various academic and administrative training courses and equips herself/ himself with necessary resources and efficiencies. A good teacher is an asset to the society. She/he plays the most important role to build the nation. So a good teacher should be duly honoured and properly placed in the society. (Words : 217)
(a) What is greenhouse effect? (b) What factors are responsible for causing greenhouse effect? (c) Does it have any global warming? (d) What may be the consequence of this climate disaster? (e) What would you suggest we should do to get rid of this problem?
Greenhouse effect is the curse of global warming. The rise in atmospheric temperature is known as the greenhouse effect. Our atmosphere is guarded by an ozone layer which resists the entrance of ultra-violet rays from the sun. The ultra-violet ray is very harmful for the environment. But deforestation around us and the increased amount of carbon dioxide, methane and chloro-floro carbons affect that layer. As a result the heat of the sun enters directly into the atmosphere of the earth. This situation is making the worlds warmer and causing climate change throughout the world. Scientists are worried about this increased heat because it is melting the ice in the polar regions (†gi“ AÂj). If this process continues for a long time, the layer of water in the oceans will rise and flood coastal areas and farm lands of Bangladesh will go under water. besides, this will reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wild life and wilderness. So, for making our dear earth safe, we should plant as many trees as possible. We have to prevent or reduce the amount of emission of green house gases. Everybody should take part to make a safe world. United efforts are essential to solve this global problem. (Words : 205)
(a) Who is a street hawker? (b) Where does he usually live? (c) How does he earn his livelihood? (d) How does he attract the customers? (e) What is his life style?
A Street Hawker
A street hawker is a person who hawks various things by moving from one street to another. He is a familiar figure in cities and towns; even he is seen in villages. He carries his goods on head, in hands or in a small hand-cart. A street hawker usually sells toys, sweets and other things. He also sells bangles, ribbons, clothes, fancy goods and things of domestic use for women. His main customers are children and women. He is very clever. He can convince his customers with his tactful words. He buys his goods at a cheap rate and sells them at a good profit. He knows it very well when to come out to sell his things. He comes out when the male persons are outside the homes and the women are free from their household works/ chores. He makes a good profit by selling his goods to children and women because he can deceive them easily. He attracts the attention of his customers by speaking in different ways. He may be cunning but his usefulness to children and women cannot be ignored. He bring many necessary things at our door. Although he is useful to them and he works hard, he leads a miserable life. (Words : 207)
(a) What is a World Heritage Site? (b) Who declares it? (c) How is it declared? (d) How many world Heritage Sites are there in Bangladesh and what are they? (e) Describe the World Heritage Sites in Bangladesh.
World Heritage Sites in Bangladesh
A World Heritage Site is a place (natural or cultural) recognised by the international community in the shape of the World Heritage Convention declared by UNESCO in 1972. It is historically and geographically important. It possesses an universal value and it is a collective responsibility of the world’s people to preserve it. Bangladesh is a small country. Though a small country, Bangladesh has three World Heritage Sites : the historic Shatgombuj Mosque of Bagerhat, the ruins of the Buddhist Vihar at Paharpur and the Sundarbans.
The Shatgombuj Mosque is a 15th Century Islamic edifice. It is an enormous Moghul architectural site covering a very large area. It has sixty pillars, which support seventy seven exquisitely curved domes. The Buddhist Vihar at Paharpur was founded in the 7th century. Its layout is perfectly adapted to its religious function. It is the largest single Buddhist monastery (gV) in the Indian subcontinent. It was declared a World Heritage Site in 1986. The Sundarbans is the 52nd World Heritage Site in the world. It is a mangrove forest and it is famous for its natural beauty. The world famous Royal Bengal Tiger lives in this forest. It has a peaceful atmosphere. It is renowned for its great variety of wild life. These are our pride. We should be aware of our duties and responsibilities regarding the World Heritage Sites. (Words : 223)
(a) What is the significance of May Day? (b) What happened on that day and where? (c) What was the condition of the workers before May Day? (d) What benefit do the workers of the present day enjoy? (e) How is it observed around the world including Bangladesh?
May 1st is International Workers’ Day. This day commemorates the historic struggle of working people. The events of May 1, 1886 is a reminder that workers will continue to be exploited until they stand up and speak out to gain better working conditions, better pay and better lives. In Chicago on May 3, 1886 police fired at the workers who were on strike demanding 8 hours working period a day, a minimum wage and safety laws. Since then, May Day has been observed almost all over the world. This day is also observed in Bangladesh in a befitting manner. This is a national holiday. The trade unions and general workers organize seminar, symposium or discussion meetings. They pay homage to the May Day martyrs who laid down their lives for realizing the rights of the working people. The newspapers and journals bring out special supplements highlighting the significance of the day. The BTV & the Radio put up special programs on the occasion. Different labour organizations chalk out elaborate programs to observe the day. People from different walks of life observe May Day and recall the sacrifices of the workers in 1886. We encourage our workers to build the country. We express solidarity and unity with the toiling people of the world. (Words : 212)