HSC English Paragraph Writing

(a) What is food adulteration? (b) How the foods are adulterated? (c) What is the demerits of food adulteration? (d) How can the problem be solved?                                                                                                                                                                          [DB ’17; Ctg ’17]

                                                      Food Adulteration

Table of Contents

Food adulteration means making food or drink less pure by adding or mixing another substance to it. Nowadays foods are often adulterated. In hotels and restaurants stale and rotten foods are mixed with fresh food and served to the customers. Fish and vegetables are adulterated by putting on them chemicals and other preservatives in order to make them look fresh. Bakery and confectionery products are also prepared by using toxic substances and thus they get adulterated. Junk food contains harmful chemicals. Even fruits, milk and beverages are adulterated. In fact all kinds of foods and food articles are adulterated by dishonest and greedy businessmen and shop keepers for quick and unearned profit. Adulterated foods are a serious health hazard. They cause many fatal diseases and even death. They are the cause behind thousands of people suffering from cancer, kidney failure, heart problems and other diseases. According to a survey report, nearly 40% of 82 samples of milk, milk products, fish, fruits and vegetables have been found contaminated in different areas of Dhaka city. Public awareness should be created so that they become careful about buying foods and food articles. Besides, the criminals have to be identified and punished. The relevant department of the government should remain ever vigilant against food adulteration and gear up their activities. (Words : 216)

(a) Who was Nelson Mandela? (b) What did he free South Africa from? (c) How many years was he in prison? (d) What are his personal achievements? (e) What will he be remembered for?

                                                   Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela is an icon of the struggle for justice across the world. He was the great leader of anti-racist movement in South Africa. He freed South Africa from the shackles of apartheid and made it a multi-racial democratic country. He was imprisoned for nearly three decades for his fight against the white minority rule in South Africa. He never compromised with the tyrant rulers. He also never lost his resolve to fight. During those years, he was the world’s most celebrated political prisoner. The white-led government tried their best to suppress the struggle but failed. At last the world community pressed them to surrender. They released Mandela and admitted to change the country’s constitution. In 1993, Mandela was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and he became the country’s first black President in 1994. He left public life in 2004. Nadine Gordimer, the Nobel laureate South African writer, wrote about him, “He is at the epicenter of our time, our in South Africa, and yours, wherever you are.” In a statement given in 1963 at the Rivonia Trial, he said, “During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people.” He is called “Madiba” by his countrymen. He is no more but everyone will remember him for his humanity, kindness and dignity. (Words : 216)

(a)  Who is known as Bangabandhu? (b) What do you know of his student life? (c) How did he contribute to the language movement? (d) What were his activities for the Awami League? (e) How did the liberation war occur?

                                Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, known as Bangabandhu, is the ‘Greatest Bengali of All Time’. He was born in a respectable Muslim family on 17 March, 1920, at Tungipara village under the Gopalganj district. He started his student life at Gimadanga Primary School at the age of seven. He passed the entrance examination from this school and got admitted to the Kolkata Islamia College. Then he took admission into Dhaka University and founded the Muslim Students League. He was one of the front-line leaders of the Language Movement and was arrested on March 11, 1948. In 1970, he was re-elected President of Awami League. Under his leadership, Awami League took part in the General Election of 1970 and gained absolute majority. On March 7, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman addressed a mammoth public rally at the Race Course ground. On the fierce night of March 25, the Pakistani Army cracked down on the innocent unarmed Bangalees, and arrested Sheikh Mujib. All the Bangalees, jumped into a bloody battle against the occupation forces. On December 16, 1971, Bangladesh became a free nation and Bangabandhu was freed from the Pakistani jail on January 8, 1972 and returned to his beloved country on January 10. It is a matter of regret that, Bangabandhu, the founding father of the nation, was killed by a group of wayward army officers. (Words : 215)

(a) What was the background of the 7th March speech? (b) Who was the speaker? (c) What were the directions for the Bengali people evident in the speech? (d) What was obligatory for the Bengalis as the speaker said? (e) What effects did the speech make on our national life?

                            The Significance of the 7th March Speech

The 7th March 1971 is a memorable day in the history of the Bengali nation. On this day Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of the nation, gave a historical speech that directed the whole nation in those days of turmoil and unrest. The West Pakistanis had been exploiting the Bengalis since the emergence of the state Pakistan in 1947. The Bengalis were deprived in economic, political and cultural life. After 24 years of treachery and discrimination, the Bengali nationalist party Awami League won the parliamentary election. But the rulers decided not to let them form the government of the country. It infuriated the entire Bengali nation. Amid anger and protest, Bangabandhu gave this epoch-making speech at the Race Course Maidan on the 7th March. He said it was the time of struggle for emancipation and independence, and the nation must fight for that mission. He called the nation for not cooperating with the Pakistanis, for not giving them taxes, and for not attending offices. Bangabandhu’s speech worked as a big inspiration for the nation. It motivated people to sacrifice their lives for the cause of the freedom of our motherland. Thus Bangabandhu’s 7th March speech has become immortal in the national history. (Words : 204)

(a) Who is Valentina Tereshkova? (b) When and where was she born? (c) What was she selected for? (d) What do you know about her space travel? (e) What do you think about her?

                                                   Valentina Tereshkova

Valentina Tereshkova is a famous astronaut and living legend. She was born on 6 March 1937 in the village Maslennikovo, Tutayevsky district, in central Russia. At first she was a textile worker in a factory. After the space flight of Yuri Gagarin in 1961, the Soviet Union decided to send a woman in space. Yuri Gagarin was the first human being for space flight. Anyway, Soviet Union selected Tereshkova for that mission on 16 February 1962. She had to undergo a series of training. After the successful launch of a spacecraft, Tereshkova began to prepare for her own flight. On the due date, she completed her communication and life support checks, and then was sealed inside the spacecraft Vostok-6. It was launched faultlessly and Tereshkova orbited the earth 48 times spending almost three days in space. In 1977, she earned a doctorate in Engineering from Zhukovsky Air Force Academy. Once she turned to politics. During the Soviet era, she became one of the presidium members of the Supreme Soviet. Now she is a member in the lower house of the Russian legislature. On her 70th birthday, Vladimir Putin invited her and she expressed her desire to fly to Mars. She is now old, will die someday but will live for ever as a famous astronaut. (Words : 217)

(a) Who is Kalpana Chawla? (b) Where was she born? (c) What is her greatest achievement? (d) What made her famous? (e) How were the last stages of her life?

                                    Kalpana Chawla

Kalpana Chawla was a famous astronaut. She died in an aerospace accident. She was born in Karnal, India on 17 March, 1962. She is the first Indian-born woman and the second person in space from the sub-continent. She graduated in Aeronautical Engineering from Punjab Engineering College and moved to the USA in 1982. She obtained her Master’s degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Texas in 1984. Thereafter she got her PhD degree in the same subject in 1988 from the University of Colorado. In 1991, she got the Green Card and in four years, she started her career as a NASA astronaut. Her first space mission began on 19 November 1997 with some other astronauts. The name of the space shuttle was Columbia. On 16 January 2003, Chawla was on a space mission on the ill-fated space shuttle Columbia. Chawla was one of the mission specialists. She had some responsibilities including the microgravity experiments, for example–studying earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. After a 16 day mission in space, Columbia disintegrated into the Earth’s atmosphere on its return journey and the brave woman Chawla’s life came to an end. However, she will remain ever fresh in the history. (Words : 207)

(a) Which problem is the most severe in Dhaka? (b) What harm does it cause? (c) How does it occur? (d) What is the main reason of occuring traffic jam in Dhaka? (e) How can the problem be solved?

                                                  Traffic Jam in Dhaka

Traffic jam is a severe problem in Dhaka city. It hampers the normal flow of citizens’ life. Various types of vehicles run in the roads and become the cause of annoyance of the common people. They cannot go to their destination in time. School going children and office going employees suffer a lot. Traffic jam mainly occurs as a result of Dhaka’s poor infrastructure. Only 7 percent of Dhaka is covered by roads, while Paris and Vienna have about 25 percent. There are about 60 traffic lights at 650 major intersections, and most of those lights do not work. Traffic jam in Dhaka costs about 3.8 billion dollar a year. Many dwellers in this city blame the rickshaws for this problem. Now the number of buses and cars have also increased. But a solution of traffic jam in this city must be made. Both the government and the common people should come forward. Good news is that the present government has taken some steps to reduce traffic jam. The metro rail project is one of them. But along with these projects government also should remove the hawkers who run their business on footpath. Public transport should be made available. Slow speeded transports should be banned from busy roads and more underpass and overpass should be built. (Words : 214)

(a) What do you mean by traffic education? (b) What does it intend? (c) What is its importance?(d) What are some traffic rules? (e) What should be done to improve traffic education?

                                                     Traffic Education

Traffic education means a training on traffic rules and regulations and also on penalties if they are breached. It intends for public awareness of traffic system ensuring their security from unexpected accidents on roads. Traffic education is very important for all in the modern era. It is an age of automobiles and heavy vehicles. If one does not know traffic systems and rules, one will find it difficult to more from one place to another. For the lack of traffic awareness, people suffer from accidents and untimely death. Such losses are irreparable. Traffic rules include some directions indicated by typical marks. Some mark will indicate a way one must not go, some other will direct one to choose a road among several ones, and some others will restrict a driver in speeding up his/ her vehicle. Traffic rules also comprise of some obligations like not being drunk, not using cell-phones and keeping quiet when driving an automobile. The importance of traffic education stresses its worth in academic level. It should have a place in regular curricula. Besides, the mass media should take steps to increase public consciousness. Only then traffic education will find its goal fulfilled i.e. ensuring public safety and secured transport. (Words : 203)

(a) What is meant by food habits? (b) How do food habits differ? (c) Are food habits the same in a country? If not, why? (d) What are the usual food habits of the people of Bangladesh? (e) What is the trend of the young people regarding food habits nowadays? (f) What changes are necessary in our food habits?

                                Food/Eating habits of Bangladeshi people

Food habits refer to the habits or practices of taking food of the people of a particular society or a country. These habits differ from one society or country to another. In Bangladesh, different people like different kinds of foods according to their own choice and taste. But the eating habits of the people are almost the same. The Bangladeshi people have some special food habits. Rice with dal and fish is our most common and favourite food. Khichuri is another popular food item of the Bangladeshis. Besides, the Bangladeshis are also fond of meat. Moreover, pithas of different kinds and shapes and payesh are also liked very much by them. People also eat wheat, potatoes, other seasonal vegetables, eggs, bread and all sorts of local fruits according to their taste. People occasionally eat polao, biryani, chicken roast, mutton or beef curry. Most families in Bangladesh have three meals a day- breakfast, lunch and dinner. Old people take our traditional foods. But many young people are getting used to Chinese and western fast foods day by day. Now it is time we have to bring some changes in our food habits. We should form the habit of eating wheat or potatoes instead of eating too much rice. (Words : 206)

(a) How many years does generally adolescence mean? (b) During this period what does one experience? (c) What are the problems that adolescents face? (d) What effects long lasting on the future health of adolescents? (e) What can be the solution for adolescents problem?


Children pass through several stages to become adult. There are four or five stages of growth: infancy, early childhood, later childhood, and adolescence. There are some who try to act older than their age. But most persons go through these stages whatever their economic or social status is. Adolescence generally covers from 13 to 18 years of age of a person. During this phase, one experiences critical transition like growing from childhood to adulthood and puberty. However, many adolescents face pressure to become alcoholic, drug-addict or chain-smoker that creates their health problems. These practices put them to high risk for intentional and unintentional injuries, unintended pregnancies and infections from HIV. These exert long-lasting effects on future health and well-being. They are not fully capable of understanding sexual practices and this incapability may make them particularly vulnerable to sexual exploitation and high-risk behaviours. Moreover, laws and policies often restrict unmarried adolescents’ access to reproductive issues. For a solution, what older ones should do is to change their outlook about the adolescents and youths, treat them properly and also talk to them about various personal problems with an open up mind. They should go forward with a new look to build up them for the sake of the country’s welfare. (Words : 208)

(a) What do you mean by etiquette and good manners? (b) How do etiquette and good manners help you? (c) Which institution is best for children to learn etiquette? (d) What do you mean by social etiquette? (e) Why is it important to be well mannered and have the proper sense of etiquette?

                                                  Etiquette and Manners

There are two terms to describe our social behaviour — ‘etiquette’ and ‘manners’. The first one is a French word. Etiquette means the rules of correct behaviour in society. Etiquette and good manners are essential to any civilization. Over the years the great people of the world have emphasized on etiquette and good manners. Good manners make you a person, while etiquette makes you socially acceptable. Etiquettes help you gain respect in society as well as in family. It is important to say ‘please’, ‘thank you’, ‘pardon me’, ‘excuse me’, ‘may I’ etc in everyday life. Family is the best institution for children to learn etiquette. Here children learn to respect the decision of all other family members. They also put into practice the foundation of all social etiquette here. Social etiquette means how you behave with your friends, neighbours and strangers. If you show respect and be well mannered with your friends and neighbours, you are sure to be in list of their favourite persons. They will trust you and care about you. We should remember that nowadays everyone observes us. We not only represent ourselves and our family but also our society, our nation. So it is important to be well mannered and have the proper sense of etiquette. (Words : 210)

(a) What do you know about the background of higher education in Bangladesh? (b) How many universities are there in Bangladesh? (c) What is the role of the government to develop the higher education system? (d) What is the present condition of higher education in Bangladesh?

                                  Higher Education in Bangladesh

Higher education system in Bangladesh has a long way of more than one hundred and fifty years of intellectual development. There are 35 government, 79 private and 3 international universities. At the higher level, universities are regulated by the University Grants Commission. The colleges providing higher education are under the National University. Although the number of government and private universities and colleges has been steadily increasing since Bangladesh gained independence in 1971, the enrollment completion rates are still very low. Because of limited number of seats in public universities and high tuition fees charged by the private universities, access to university education is rather limited. In the late 1990s the government gave priority to human resource development and emphasized “Education for All” as a target. Recent five year plans provide for a larger proportion of national budgets for opening additional colleges and universities especially in the area of medicine, science and information technology. The Bangladesh National University, to which many hundreds of colleges and affiliated, is being modernized and revamped. Thus the higher education system in Bangladesh developed periodically with vision and meeting demand of time. Private higher education also developed simultaneously saving foreign currency and ensuring total human development. (Words : 200)

(a) What is meant by friendship? (b) Who is a friend? (c) Who are called best friends? (d) What are the qualities of a good friend? (e) Who is a true friend? (f) How can a true friend be identified?


A friend is a person that someone likes or knows. People who are friends talk to each other and spend time together. They also help each other when they are in trouble or are hurt. Sometimes people can’t tell their secrets to their parents so they tell it to their friends. A friend is one who admires a person’s skill and helps or encourages him to make the right choices. The strength of the bond of friendship between two people can vary. If the bond is very strong, they are called best friends. This can usually be achieved by possessing the elements of friendship, by being kind, generous, loyal, honest and by having fun. There are expectations, demands, and complaints in friendship too. Friends can help one materialistically and morally. But if they don’t match with one’s expectations, it does not mean one will break the friendship. Friendship is both good and necessary. Friends are needed for support and for sharing. Friendship means closeness without any selfish motive. But true friendship is rarely seen. Growing true friendship depends upon selection of a friend. Best test of friendship is adversity. Prosperity brings friends but adversity tries them. But a true friend does not leave his friend in any situation. He is ready even to die for him. (Words : 216)

(a) How is the past of the river Buriganga? (b) How did the name Buriganga come? (c) How is the present condition of Buriganga? (d) How is the river being polluted?

                                            The River Buriganga

The Buriganga is a famous river flowing by Dhaka, the capital city of the country. This river had a glorious past. It was a tributary of the mighty Ganges and flowed into the Bay of Bengal through the Dhaleshwari. Gradually it lost its link with the Ganges and got the name Buriganga. The Mughals marveled at its tide level and founded their provincial capital Jahangirnagar on its banks in 1610. Once the river supplied drinking water and supported trade and commerce. Later Jahangirnagar grew into a heavily populated city under its new name ‘Dhaka’. Now the Buriganga is a polluted and dying river. Huge quantities of toxic chemicals and wastes from mills and factories, hospitals and residential buildings are dumped into its water everyday. The situation is so disastrous that it seems we have killed one of our rivers. Steps must be taken to save our other rivers from such death. Otherwise we shall have to cry for our other rivers as we do for our beloved Buriganga. (Words : 168)


(a) Which is the major wetland of Bangladesh? (b) Where is Hakaluki Haor situated? (c) Why is the haor an important source of fisheries in Bangladesh? (d) What kind of fishes are found in Hakaluki Haor? (e) What is the present condition of the beels?

                                            The Hakaluki Haor

Bangladesh is full of waterbodies like rivers, canals, beels and haors. Hakaluki Haor is one of the major wetlands of the country. It is a complex ecosystem, containing more than 238 interconnecting beels and jalmahals. The haor falls under two districts, Maulvibazar and Sylhet. Surrounding the haor, about 190,000 people live. The haor is an important source of fisheries resources for Bangladesh. Fishes like Kalibaus, Boal, Rui, Ghagot, Pabda and Chapila are found here. The beels in the haor provide winter shelter for mother fisheries. Now due to sand deposits, dewatering technique for fishing and lack of aquatic plants, many of those beels have lost their capacity to provide such shelter. The haor is a very important resting place for migratory birds. Unfortunately, illegal poaching has been a threat to the bird population. Hakaluki Haor is also known as a good grazing land for domestic animals in winter. The haor system provides economic and non-economic benefits to the people. These benefits include fish and rice production, duck, cattle and buffalo rearing, collection of reeds, grasses, aquatic and other plants. Its unique system adds to the beauty of the landscape both during the monsoon and other seasons. Its beauty and economic importance can attract a large number of tourists. (Words : 208)

(a) Where is Kuakata situated? (b) How long is Kuakata? (c) What do you find in Kuakata? (d) What is the story behind its name? (e) What is the religious value of Kuakata?


Kuakata is a rare scenic spot located on the southernmost tip of Bangladesh. It is locally known as ‘sagar kannya’ that means the daughter of the sea. It is in Latachapli union under Kalapara police station of Patuakhali district. Kuakata is about 30 km in length and 6 km in breadth. It is an attractive tourist spot having an excellent combination of the picturesque natural beauty, sandy beaches, blue sky, the shimmering expanse of water of the Bay of Bengal and an evergreen forest. According to the legend, the Rakhaines expelled from Arakan by the Mughal invaders settled there. They dug a ‘kua’ or well on the seashore that gave birth to the name of the place. A visitor can enjoy both the sunrise and the sunset from Kuakata beach. It is one of the world’s most attractive beaches. It is also a sanctuary for migratory birds. Kuakata is called a ‘virgin beach’. The indigenous culture of the Rakhaine community and Buddhist temples are cultural heritage of the area. Besides, Kuakata is a holy land for the Hindus and the Buddhists. Many century-old Buddhist temples adorn the place. Each year thousands of devotees come here to attend, take holy bath and enjoy the festivals called Rash Purnima and Maghi Purnima. (Words : 210)

(a) What is beauty? (b) Where do we find beauty? (c) How is beauty related with ugliness? (d) How does beauty reveal itself in its absence? (e) How is beauty related with truth? (f) How does beauty appear to poets and artists?


Beauty is an abstract idea which creates a great pleasure to the senses or to the mind of a person. In fact it is a feeling which pacifies one’s mind and it varies from person to person. We find beauty in many things around us. Beauty is found in nature, in human character, in the kindness of a person, in the laughter of children etc. When we look at nature, we can enjoy natural beauty of mountain, sea, river, forests etc. The laughter of children, a great human character, the kindness of a person etc. create a feeling of pleasure to us. Everyone desires beauty throughout his/her whole life but there are no unmixed blessings in the world. Whenever we face any kind of ugliness, we strongly desire for beauty. Beauty is an important part of our life but we have to remember that ugliness is also a part of our life. People extensively feel the importance of beauty when it is absent from their life. When we see hunger, injustice, maltreatment, terrorism in our society, we seriously think of how to remove these evil things. The absence of beauty reveals its importance to a great extent. Beauty and truth are very closely related. Beauty is really desired by the people who always search for truth. (Words : 216)

(a) What kind of forest the Sundarbans is? (b) Why is the Sundarbans famous for? (c) What is the alarming news about the Sundarbans and its tigers? (d) What does the Sundarbans make vulnerable? (e) Why did the Sundarbans become a critical tiger habitat? (f) How many tigers can live in the Sundarbans? (g) Why should we save our forest the Sundarbans?

                           The Sundarbans and the Royal Bengal Tiger

The Sundarbans is a vast mangrove forest shared by Bangladesh and India, across the coastline of the Bay of Bengal. The forest is famous as a habitat of our national beast Royal Bengal Tiger. But it is an alarming news that 71% of the forest’s coastline is retreating by nearly 200 meters a year as a result of soil erosion. If it continues, tigers’ existence will be at stake. The causes of this erosion are increasing storm, surges and other extreme natural events, rises in sea-level and increased salinity that makes mangroves vulnerable. This rapid retreating of coastline cannot be accounted by the regular dynamics of the Sundarbans. Thus the forest is now a critical tiger habitat. The forest is known for vanishing islands but the scientists said the current retreat of the mangrove forests on the coastline is not normal. As human development thrives, and global temperature continues to rise, natural protection from tidal waves and cyclones are lessening at an alarming rate. This will inevitably lead to species loss in this richly biodiverse part of the world. It is one of the few forests that can hold several hundred tigers. So it is now vitally necessary to save this forest for saving the majestic Bengal Tigers from extinction. (Words : 210)

What is meant by human rights? What are the basic human rights? Why do people struggle for? How did Bangladesh emerge as an independent state? What are the most powerful enemies of human rights in our country? What is essential for exercising human rights?

                                                       Human Rights

Human rights are the rights that are inherent in all human beings in spite of their different identities. The basic or fundamental rights include human’s social rights, civil rights, political rights, cultural rights, religious rights and economic rights etc. Everyone has the right to keep one’s privacy, honour, nationality, family, freedom of thought and expression, association, and suffrage. Each and every country of the world adopts obligations and duties to protect and fulfill its human rights. People all over the world struggle for establishing fundamental human rights. But unfortunately people are yet to overcome the barriers to human rights. Bangladesh emerged as an independent state as a result of a fight against violation of human rights by the Pakistanis in different ways. In spite of having enough potential for progress and prosperity, our country is still fighting against humiliating poverty and illiteracy. These two are perhaps the most powerful enemies of human rights. As a result, most of the people are unable to speak and think freely. It is essential that people need freedom to exercise their rights. But in our country they are often neglected by the established politics and socio-economic activities. Yet, there is ample scope for improvement in the status of human rights. (Words : 205)

(a) Who is Gazi Pir? (b) What did he do? (c) What do people believe about him? (d) Who feared him? (e) What kind of extraordinary power did Gazi have?

                                                           Gazi Pir

Gazi Pir is a legendary or mythic character. According to legend, he was a Muslim saint who helped the spread of Islam in the parts of Bengal close to the Sundarbans. He is said to have done many miracles. People believe he could calm dangerous animals and make them docile. He is usually depicted in paats or scroll paintings riding a terrifying Bengal Tiger, while holding a snake in his hand. Some stories tell us that he also fought crocodiles that threatened the people of a region full of canals and creeks. That place was, in fact, a watery jungle. People also believe that he enabled villagers to live close to forests and jungles and to cultivate their lands. Wild animals feared him. People of those areas prayed to him for protection. The story of Gazi Pir has been preserved in folk literature and indigenous culture. Some Gazir Paat collections are also kept in the British Museum. (Words : 157)


(a) Who is Orpheus? (b) What did his father teach him? (c) Who were charmed by his music? (d) Who did Orpheus marry? (e) How did he lose his beloved for ever?


Orpheus is a character of antique Greek mythology. He is a mythic god. Son of Apollo and the Muse Calliope, he was awarded a lyre by his father and also taught to play upon it. He played on the lyre with so perfection that no other person’s performance was comparable to it. His music not only softened the other fellow-mortals but also wild animals. His music even charmed trees and rocks. The trees crowded around him being charmed by his music. The rocks were also softened by his notes. Orpheus married Eurydice whose untimely death led him to the underworld in order to recover her. He charmed the rulers and guards of Hades with his music and was allowed to bring back his beloved on one condition. The condition was that he would not look back at her until they reach the upper world. Orpheus failed to check his desire to look at Eurydice and lost her for ever. (Words : 159)


(a) Who is Hercules? (b) Which things are known as the ‘twelve labours of Hercules’? (c) Who disturbed the village of Nemea? (d) Who was Hydra? What was her speciality? (e) How did Hercules become successful in his missions?


Hercules is a famous character of antique Greek mythology. He was the son of Jupiter, the king of gods, and Alcmena. He was assigned with some difficult tasks by Eurystheus, the king of Mycenae and his cousin. Those tasks are known as the ‘twelve labours of Hercules’ in Greek mythology. Eurystheus ordered Hercules to slay a lion and bring him his skin, which disturbed the village of Nemea. Hercules at first fought the lion with weapons but failed and then slayed it just with his hands. His next task was to slay a monster called Hydra. Hydra had nine heads, one of which was immortal. When Hercules attempted to struck off its heads, two new ones erupted. With the help of his servant Iolaus, Hercules succeeded in burning eight heads of Hydra and he managed to bury the immortal head under a rock. Hercules became successful in his missions one after another and became a world-famous hero. (Words : 157)

(a) How can dreams be? (b) What does Sigmund Freud say about dream? (c) Why do we dream? (d) Are dreams meaningless? What do the researchers think? (e) According to theorists, how can we get benefit from dreams?


Philosophers have been fascinated with dreams for thousands of years, but empirical research and scientific study on it has begun only in recent times. Dreams can be extraordinarily vivid or vague; it can be either joyful or frightening; and also can be understandable or confusing. Yet the researchers do not understand the purpose of dreams. The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud’s theory of dreams suggests that dreams are a representation of unconscious desires, thoughts and motivations. According to Freud, when our aggressive and sexual instincts are not consciously expressed, they find their way into our awareness via dreams. So dreams are disguised fulfillments of repressed wishes. Some researchers also think that dreams are not meaningless rather the cognitive elements in our brain produce new ideas during dreams. One theory suggests dreams to be the result of our brains trying to interpret external stimuli during sleep. Some theorists think dreams refresh the mind and according to some others, they function as a form of psychotherapy. ‘Dream’ has also other meanings. The great Romantic poet William Wordsworth regarded poets to be dreamers. Poets give voice to what we desire to achieve. They write about the dreams of lovers, men of action, patriots, social reformers and workers. The great leaders were also dreamers as they dreamt for human emancipation. (Words : 214)

(a) What do you know about diaspora? (b) What community does diaspora refer? (c) Who were the historical notable diaspora in ancient times? (d) Which diaspora did move in the Indian subcontinent and why they came? (e) Which diaspora did attract a lot of interest in the last century and why are they a cause of concern for world leaders? (f) What is the main cause of diaspora in the modern world?


The word ‘diaspora’ means those people who have left their homelands and settled in other parts of the world, either because they were forced to leave their homeland or they liked to live in their own way. The word is used for a collective group or a community. The world has seen many great diasporas. Among those, the Jewish people are historically notable, who were forced to leave their lands in ancient times. The Aryans who moved from the central Europe to the Indian subcontinent is another important diaspora in history. But the causes of this diaspora are unknown. The Palestinian diaspora attracted a lot of interests in the last century. They are a cause of concern for the world leaders due to their plight. War or the ravages of nature have created a massive African diaspora, too. But the major cause of so much concerns of diaspora in the modern world is globalization. (Words : 154)

(a) Where is Banglatown located? (b) What is the former name of Banglatown? (c) What can one see there? (d) Where do the most British Bangladeshis live? (e) How did the area came to be known as ‘Banglatown’?


Banglatown is a locality in East London, inhabited by Bangladeshi diaspora in Britain. British-Bangladeshis, also known as British- Bengalis, are an important part of the people of Bangladeshi origin living abroad. Almost half of the British-Bangladeshis live in Banglatown. It was formerly known as the East London boroughs, including a street named Brick Lane and Tower Hamlets, having the highest concentration. The whole locality has a Bangladeshi environment. One can see Bangladeshi restaurants, Bengali street-signs, green and red lamp-posts (reflecting the colours of our flag), Bangladeshi food stores, and advertisement of Bangladesh Biman and Sonali Bank. There are a number of visible Bangladeshi landmarks, such as Altab Ali Park, the Kobi Nazrul Cultural Centre and the Shohid Minar Monument. These landmarks are matters of pride for the British Bangladeshis. In 2001, the British Bangladeshi leaders moved to change the name of the locality that was recognized by the British government in order to give it a distinct cultural identity. (Words : 159)

(a) What is conflict? (b) What are the causes of conflict? (c) How does conflict influence our actions and decisions? (d) How many conflicts are there in human world? (e) How can we live in harmony despite conflict?


Conflict means a disagreement among groups or individuals characterized by antagonism and hostility. It is mainly caused by the opposition of one party to another, and it comes as a result of one party’s attempt to reach an objective different from the other party’s goal. Conflict is an inevitable part of life, as all of us possess our own opinions, ideas and sets of beliefs. We have our own ways of thinking and we act accordingly. As a result, we find ourselves in conflict in different scenarios with other individuals or groups of people. Then conflict influences our actions and decisions. A clash of thoughts and ideas is a part of the human experience; so conflict comes naturally. It can be seen as an opportunity for learning and understanding our differences. Again, conflict in the human world may concern either economy or value or power. It can be interpersonal or intrapersonal, intergroup or intragroup. Interpersonal conflict means a conflict between two persons. Intrapersonal conflict occurs within an individual and takes place in a person’s mind. Intragroup conflict happens among individuals within a team. And intergroup conflict is seen among teams within an organization. We can all live in harmony despite conflicts if we know how to manage these issues. (Words : 209)

(a) What do you understand by peace movement? (b) What are the goals of peace movement? (c) What is the common goal of peace movement organizations? (d) What does peace movement oppose for? (e) How can peace movement establish a peaceful world?

                                     Peace Movement

A peace movement is a social movement. It seeks to achieve such goals as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimizing inter-human violence and achieving world peace. It is basically an all-encompassing “anti-war movement”, primarily characterized by a belief that human beings should not wage war on each other or engage in violent disputes on race, religion, language, ideology or natural resources. The goals of the peace movement include advocacy of pacifism, non-violent resistance, demonstrations, peace camps, supporting anti-war politicians, banning guns, supporting activists for peace, etc. Though peace movement organizations may have diverse aims, their one common goal is sustainability of peace. The peace movement also opposes the proliferation of dangerous technologies and destructive weapons, particularly nuclear weapons. In these ways, its aims at establishing a world free from hatred and enmity. The first peace movement happened in 1815-1816. The first such movement in the USA was the New York Peace Society founded in 1815. Peace organizations were set up in many countries. The United Nations was established with the primary objective to maintain peace and resolve inter-state conflicts in the world. Since then, many treaties have been signed between many nations, for example—nuclear non-proliferation treaty. All want peace and like the principles of non-violence. (Words : 211)

(a) What does peace refer to? (b) How do you define peace? (c) Why is peace necessary? (d) What do war and conflict create? (e) What will happen if peace is established around the world?

                             Importance of Global Peace

The issue of war and peace has always been a focal issue in all periods of history of the world. Today establishment of peace in the world is one of the major challenges for the world leaders. Peace doesn’t only refer to the end of war, rather it is more than that. It is, a condition characterized by peaceful, cooperative and harmonious conduct of the global nations with a view to secure an all round sustainable development of the people of the world. To make our all the development efforts successful there is no alternative to establish peace in the world. Peace is necessary to ensure human rights around the world. We cannot think of a better life, better international relationship and better world without peace. War or conflict has nothing good in them. They only bring destructions. They create a sense of insecurity to live on the earth. Establishment of peace will remove hostility among powerful countries of the world. The modern age has seen different peace movements that have goals including advocacy of pacifism, non-violent resistance, demonstrations, peace camps, supporting anti-war politicians and peace activists, etc. We should remember that we are not for the world, but the world is for us. So it is important for us to establish peace around us to exist. (Words : 217)

(a) When was the first house lighted with electricity? (b) When was the first trans Atlantic flight made? (c) Who made the first artificial heart? (d) When did cell phones make their appearance? (e) When did personal computer become available?

                  The Recent Scientific Achievements

The Modern Age is the age of science. We have had a tremendous advancement in the field of science and technology in the last one and a half century. The first remarkable work was the invention of electricity. The first house was lighted with electricity in the 1870s. Cars were first available about a century ago. The first trans-Atlantic flight was made in 1927. After the Second World War, television came to the people’s doors. Scientists have now focused their attention on the growth of human longevity. Dr. Barney Clark made the Jarvik-7 the first artificial heart in 1982. It was intended to last a lifetime and was a huge step towards the development of heart transplant surgery. Cell phones made their appearance in the 1990s. Now more than 4.6 billion people around the world use cell phones. Personal computer became available to consumers in 1974. It is now used to get access to the Internet, do word processing, use a calculator, watch TV, play games and do many other things. Communication satellites support techno-based contact among people. Man has also reached the Moon. The Internet and Microchip have revolutionized information technology. Thus human civilization has achieved a new height through scientific revolution. (Words : 203)

(a) What is the contribution of science to modern civilization? (b) What do the scientists aim at? (c) What are the scientists thinking of? (d) What are the dreams of the doctors? (e) What do the astrophysicists want to do?

                          Future Scientific Breakthroughs

Science seems to have limitless possibilities. It has already taken the civilization to a height with a huge number of inventions. It has blessed human life with automobiles, electricity, radio, TV, modern medicare, computer and information technology. As scientists are also dreamers, they always aim at new and newer achievements. A possible scientific invention is DNA computer, which will have vast memory and contain all the printed material of the world. Scientists, especially NASA, are thinking of making permanent base in the moon. They are also thinking for a technology of producing clean energy, which may include wind, solar, geothermal, tidal, hydropower, nuclear and biofuel energy. The doctors are dreaming of a remedy from life killing cancer and of high-tech nanomedicine. The astrophysicists want to travel to the Mars, and also there are dreamers who want to have a journey to the earth’s centre. Man has been dreaming to go to the Earth’s center since the 19th century. It shows how unpredictable technology can be. It is actually much more difficult than it sounds. Especially, the pressure there is enormous. There is not even carbon monotube there to maintain its shape at such pressure. But scientists are dreaming. Thus science shows the human species of a bright and glorious future. (Words : 210)

(a) What is folk music? (b) Who do compose folk music? (c) What do folk songs tell about? (d) How do folk songs vary? (e) Write down the name of some folk songs of our country.

                                            Folk Music

Folk music means that type of ancient music that springs from the heart of a community, based on their natural style of expression uninfluenced by classical music or modern popular songs. A combination of folk song, folk dance and folk tune can be called folk music, for example– Baul songs. The rural folk compose folk music on the basis of ancient rules transmitted orally. Folk songs are composed and performed by illiterate or semi-literate people, either in groups or individually. It is a spontaneous expression in easy language, local dialect and simple tune. Bangladesh has a rich tradition of folk music. These songs tell about social inequality and poverty, about the material world and the supernatural. Our folk music varies from region to region. They are classified into Bhawaiya, Bhatiyali, Baul, Murshidi, Marfati, Kabigan, Leto, Alkap, Gambhira etc. Folk songs have been written on the culture, festivals, views of life, natural beauty, rivers and rural life. Some song-writers have composed mystical songs using the metaphors of rivers and boats. Bhatiyali is an important genre of folk music in this riverine country. Tribes like Santal, Garo, Hajong, Chakma, Manipuri, Tripura, Marma etc. have their own folk music. All those forms of music have enriched our culture. (Words : 205)

(a) What is craftwork? (b) How is a craftwork shaped? (c) Who determine the form and content of craftwork? (d) Mention the distinctive qualities of a craftwork.

                                    Crafts of Bangladesh

A craftwork is an applied form of art. It is a social and cultural product reflecting the inclusive nature of folk imagination. A craftwork, though doesn’t bear the maker’s signature, retains a personal touch. ‘Nakshikantha’ is a fine example of Bangladeshi craftwork. We wonder at a Nakshikantha for its artistic ingenuity. Our personal ignorance of the artist of a craftwork doesn’t diminish his/ her worth. A craftwork is shaped by the interaction of individual creativity and community aesthetics, utility functions and also human values. A craftwork also represents a way of life and a cultural flavour. That’s why changes in lifestyle and material conditions are expected to have their influence on craftworks and their production. But craftworks face some problems in this era. Its future is under threat due to industrialization and meachanization. Now, crafts that are disappearing should be revived. Nowadays, even when the market is an important factor, community aesthetics determine the form and content of the work. Craftworks like dolls reflect community aesthetics so much that the market cannot impose its preference on them. Craftworks are dynamic objects, always evolving and abreast of changing tastes and preferences. As a result, their demand still remains throughout the country and beyond. (Words : 202)

(a) How many kinds of education are there? (b) What is informal education? (c) What is formal education? (d) How can we learn from various kinds of education?


Education is a process of teaching, training and learning, especially in schools or colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills. Education enlightens the mind and broadens the outlook. There are two kinds of education informal and formal. Informal education means basic education. It is acquisition which people develop through their mother tongue. It is a natural and subconscious process of receiving education. It is usually learnt while speaking with members of the family, with friends and relatives. Informal education may be called implicit learning. Formal education is learning which is received at schools, colleges or universities with lessons, exams etc. Formal education may be classified as academic, vocational and professional. Academic education provides academic learning to learners in various disciplines such as arts, science, business studies, law, medical and engineering etc. vocational education is connected with the skills, knowledge, etc. that one needs to have in order to do a particular job. Professional education refers to the kind of education which is connected with a job needing special training or skill. Moreover, one of the functions of education today should be to impart 21st century stills. Besides reading, mathematics and science, it is necessary to train other skills that are in demand. We can learn a lot from various kinds of education which enrich our domain of knowledge. (Words : 218)

(a) Which are some of the important tourist spots of Bangladesh? (b) Why are they attractive? (c) What do the tourists enjoy in those spots? (d) What is the present condition of some of these spots? (e) What steps should the government take to uplift their present condition?

                          Tourist Spots of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is the darling child of nature. So, she has been blessed with innumerable natural scenic spots all over the country. All these beautiful places are the tourists’ attraction from home and abroad. The National Park at Gazipur, the BARI at Comilla, Rangamati, Bandarban, Cox’s Bazar sea beach, Kuakata sea beach, Hiron Point in the Sundarbans, the Shat Gombuj Mosque at Bagerhat, the tea gardens of Sreemangal are some of the most important tourist spots of Bangladesh. They are attractive because of their scenic natural beauty. The tourists of home and abroad visit these places and enjoy their exquisite beauty to their mind’s content. The tourists are enjoyed to see the endless beauty of those places. At present some of these tourist spots lag behind to attract tourists for lack of accommodation facilities for them. Kuakata is truly a virgin sea beach. Hiron Point is also such a tourist spot. The government should take effective steps to uplift their present condition by making arrangements for accommodation, safety of the tourists and enhance the beauty of the spots. When more and more tourists from home and abroad will visit these spots, the economy of the tourism corporation will increase to a great extent. (Words : 202)

(a) What does travelling mean? (b) What do the travellers do and why? (c) What does travelling give us? (d) What are the different types of travelling? (e) What does traveling teach us? (f) What is the usefulness of travelling?


Travelling means going from one place to another for different purposes. They also explore to see the unseen and know the unknown. The travellers always travel the most beautiful places of the world which uphold the existence of nature. There are many ways to see the unseen and know the unknown, but travelling is the best of all. For example : reading books gives us literal knowledge, listening story gives us indefinite ideas, but travelling gives us visual as well as concrete knowledge. Someone travels to gain knowledge and experience, someone travels for pleasure, someone travels for business purposes etc. There are different types of travelling like travelling by air, bus, boat, train etc. Every travelling has much educative value. It is a part of education. Our education and book knowledge remain imperfect without travelling. For this reason, we can learn many things by travelling. It teaches us trade and commerce, language, sociology, customs, culture, history, geography and so on. Therefore, the educative value of travelling beyond description. Besides, there are some special benefits of travelling. Travelling removes our monotony and gives pleasure. Similarly, it also broadens our outlook and refreshes our mind. A good traveler can easily educate others. (Words : 200)


(a) What is environment? (b) What are the elements of environment? (c) What is environmental pollution? (d) How is environment polluted? (e) What are the harmful effects of environmental pollution? (f) How can we prevent it?                 [RB ’17; CtgB ’14; BB ’11]

                              Environment Pollution

Environmental pollution refers to the pollution of natural conditions, land, air and water in which human beings, animals and plants live. There are various types of pollution in the environment. Air pollution, water pollution, sound pollution, arsenic pollution are some of them. Air is being polluted by the emission (wbM©Z nIqv) of harmful smoke. Mills and factories, vehicles with engines produce carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and many other poisonous gases. By inhaling (wbk¦vm †bIqv) this polluted air, people suffer from various diseases. Water is polluted very easily. Human waste and industrial waste are greatly responsible for water pollution. farmers use pesticides (KxUbvkK) and chemicals for producing crops. Floods and rain water wash these materials into ponds, rivers and other sources of water and by drinking this polluted water, people become sick. Again sound is polluted if it is above 70 decibel. Most of the vehicles use hydrolic horns which produce unbearable sound. Nowadays arsenic pollution is increasing alarmingly. If we don’t take step to prevent these pollutions, our life on earth will be hellish (bviKxq). We should make everybody aware of the harmful effects of these pollutions. this is not all. Punishment should be given to those bad people who are directly involved with environmental pollution. (Words : 200)

(a) What is drug addiction? (b) Why do people take drug? (c) What are the harms caused by drugs? (d) What is remedy of drug addiction? [DinajB ’17]

                                      Drug addiction

Drug addiction, as curse in modern age leads to an untimely miserable death of the addicts. Drug addiction is the habit of using non-prescribed medicine for exciting feelings. Opium, hemp, heroine, morphine, yaba, phensidyl etc. are the main drugs taken in our country. Drug addiction is the habit of taking an excess of drug for no physical disease but to get rid of frustration. There are a great variety of reasons behind drug addiction. Frustration due to unemployment, political anarchy, lack of family ties and lack of love and affection is the main cause of drug addiction. Drugs create some kind of dream like feelings and the drug-takers forget everything for some moments and live in a world of hallucination. Drug addiction causes a lot of harms not only to the addicts but also to the society and nation as a whole. Drugs tell upon the human body terribly. The addicts feel drowsy and his nervous system gradually becomes weak causing damage to their brain which leads to decay and death. When the addicts fail to arrange money for buying drugs, they commit various kinds of social crimes and become dependent on others. Both the government and non-government agencies including the parents may cure the addicts and help them to live a happy and peaceful life in the society. (Words : 219)

                                     My Best Friend

Good friends are very rare in these fast changing days. Old values have gone and new ones have not yet come. I am lucky to have a number of friends. Among them I have a special one and we love each other very much. The name of my best friend is Shayan Sharjeel. He comes from a respectable family. We are class fellows. He is one of the best students of our class. He understands things quickly. He is a bright and active student. He is very punctual. He is obedient and respectful. He is soft-spoken. He is good in studies. He reads some extra books and is not confined to his textbooks. He takes interest in current affairs and often discusses with me about important issues of the day. He is tolerant, broadminded and co-operative. He is also fond of seeing movies in theater. Sometimes he compels me to accompany him even though I have seen that particular movie. In fact, nobody is absolutely free from shortcomings. I allow him to enjoy such liberties and he does not cross the limit. He is a very good cricket player. He is a well-mannered boy. I am really proud of him. (Words : 200)

(a) Who is an ideal student? (b) What are the duties of an ideal student? (c) What are the outstanding qualities of an ideal student? (d) Is he obedient to his parents and teachers?                                                                                                                          [CB ’17; SB ’14]

                                        An Ideal Student

An ideal student is an all-rounder having many different qualities, skills and abilities. He/she is an asset for the school and for the country. Punctuality is a good virtue for all. An ideal student is always regular and punctual in attending the class and submitting the assignment. A good student is very studious. He/she learns and earns and his/her learning is an asset. He/She does not leave anything undone for tomorrow that can be done today. An ideal student always speaks the truth. So it is seen that an ideal student always remains ahead and success embraces him/her all the times. All these qualities make him/ her different from other students. We need simplicity and sincerity in all walks of life. An ideal student is simple in behaviour, sincere in activities and dedicated towards the nation. He/she should be polite in his/her behaviour in order to be loved and cared for by all. He provides a model that other students follow. He/she is always obedient to his parents and teachers. Bangladesh is marching towards the progress since her birth. The whole nation wants brilliant students. In this context, an ideal student is given utmost priority. Everybody loves an ideal student. (Words : 200)

                                   Modern Technology

Present age is the age of science and technology. Modern technology is a great blessing for present civilization. We see the use of modern technology in every sphere of our life. We can’t think of our modern life without science and technology. Technology is being used in industry, communication, medical treatment, household activities etc. Use of technology has made our life easy and more comfortable. Modern technology has turned the world into a global village. With the blessings of mobile phone, internet, television, computer we can know in an instant what is happening in the farthest corner of the world. We can communicate with anyone living at any place in the world within seconds. Medical technology has advanced to a great extent. It is being used in diagnosing and curing very complex diseases. Sophisticated plane, rocket, ship etc. are the gifts of modern technology. Mills and factories are manufacturing various things very quickly. Mobile phone and computer are certainly most wonderful invention of science. Besides, communication between person to person, we can enjoy various things on these two wonderful scientific devices. Technology has made the impossible things possible. In a word, it is the life and soul of modern civilization. (Words : 200)

(a) What is cell phone? (b) What are the uses and abuses of cell phone? (c) How do the students get benefited from the cell phone? (d) Do you think cell phone is a blessing for us?                                                                                                                                        [BB ’17]

                           Uses and Abuses of Cell Phone

Cell Phone is a great invention of modern science. It is called so because a user can carry it wherever he goes out. It has made the interpersonal communication very easy and fast. One can communicate with the expected person within a few seconds through a mobile phone. Business communication has become easier because of the use of this device and all steps of life are benefited by it. It is also helpful for the students. They can get suggestion of their studies from their friends and teachers. So the number of consumers of mobile phone is increasing day by day. Today, more than 100 million people in Bangladesh and over 4.6 billion people around the world use cell phones. It spreads so fast that it is now considered one of the greatest inventions of all time. It makes the world smaller and brings all closer. But it is unfortunate that it has some negative aspects too. Criminals also use it for their activities. It causes some health hazard. Scientists believe that it causes brain tumors by its invisible and uncontrolled radio activity. Specially the pregnant women and children should not use it at all. In spite of all these, mobile phone is a blessing for us. (Words : 207)

(a) What is Internet? (b) How does Internet work? (c) How do the teachers help the students in the developed countries? (d) How does a user operate it? (e) Has Bangladesh access to Internet in all spheres?                                                                                          [DB’16]


Internet, the latest and most wonderful means of worldwide communication, is a computer-based global network system that has created a great revolution in the world. It is the cheapest and fastest means of communication for business and commerce. The information system of the world has become globalized with the magical touch of internet. Like a spider-web the internet has spread its interconnected link with tens, hundreds or even thousands of computers. Internet has brought new opportunities to government, education and business. In the developed countries teachers send every study material and course to every individual student through internet. Picture, data and many other things also can be sent through internet. If one wants to use internet, one has to learn how to operate it. Firstly, the user needs a particular software to install in his computer. Next, he  has to click on the browsing icon where a space for writing the address on the web page will appear. One can go for a searching engine in order to find a particular web page or a piece of information. Bangladesh, as a developing country does not have access to the internet in all spheres except the banking system and educational institutions. (Words : 200)

(a) Why is English so important? (b) Why should we learn it? (c) What benefits do we get from learning English? (d) What is the present position of English in Bangladesh? (e) What are your suggestions to improve it?

                                                                                                                                                                                      [RB’16; BB ’14]

                            Necessity of Learning English

The necessity of learning English is beyond description. English is that common language which is used and understood all over the world. It has become the second language of our country. We need to know the language for many reasons. We cannot communicate with the people of other countries in our mother tongue. We need a language that is common to the people of all the countries. When we go outside, we use English to communicate with the foreigners. We have to use English in business correspondence with foreigners. Nowadays businessmen have to maintain international relations. So they use English language. Next, we require English language for higher studies because books of higher classes are written in English. The language of computer, the present wonder of science, is English. It is not possible to operate computer without knowing English. Moreover, English is essential in Foreign Service. People who are engaged in serving international relations must know English. There are many other jobs like postman, airhostess, hotel receptionist etc. that essentially require English. In all, English language has become a very indispensable and unavoidable language for us. The simple ways to improve it are to provide the students with the standard English text of every class in each school and college. (Words : 210)

(a) What is gender discrimination? (b) Who are the victims of gender discrimination? (c) What are the causes of it? (d) How does it affect the society? (e) How can this problem be solved? [DinajB’16; BB ’12]

                                  Gender Discrimination

Gender discrimination is the practice of treating any gender of the society unfairly. When any person of one particular gender is not given his or her rights, gender discrimination begins. Female persons of our society are the worst (Pig Lvivc) sufferers of this discrimination. It starts from the very birth of a female child, and ends with her death. Our society is dominated by male people. They think that male child will earn money for the family and female child will do only domestic chores. So, male children always get prominence. they get the highest of the opportunities (myweav) available in the families. But, female children are assigned (Kg©vw`i `vwqZ¡ Ac©Y Kiv) to household works and are married off as soon as possible. So, they don’t get opportunity to flourish their latent (myß) talent (cÖwZfv). Some of these girls may be at school but after marriage, they only give birth to children and rear them up. This disparity (AmgZv) causes a great harm to their mentality. they think themselves inferior (wbæZi ev nxbZi) to male people. But, for social development both male and female persons should contribute equally because the female people are the half of our whole population. It is not possible for male people to change the socio-economy without the help of female people. This problem can be solved by raising awareness in general. (Words : 214)

(a) What is the state of female education in Bangladesh? (b) What is the percentage of female literacy? (c) Why is female education necessary? (d) What are the obstacles women face in receiving education? (e) Why are the women of our country lagging behind? (f) What are the advantages of female education? (g) How can educated women contribute to the socio-economic development of our country?                [JB’16; SB’13; CtgB ’12]

                                   Female Education

Female education is very essential for the overall development of a nation. More or less, half of the population of a country is female. Leaving the female uneducated and unemployed, no nation can prosper. In our country about 7 crore people are women out of 14 crore in total. But, most of the women are lagging (wcwQ‡q cov) far behind in education. The rate of female literacy is about 20%. This rate of female literacy is alarming because without their education, our satisfactory development is impossible. Women need to be educated for different reasons. To be a conscious citizen of the country, to be an active member of the family and society, to be a good mother or wife and to lead a self-reliant better life, a woman should be educated properly. Besides, educated women have higher income potential than those who have had no schooling. An educated woman is conscious of her duties, rights and responsibilities. So, we should take every necessary step to ensure an environment to educate our female force. Parents ought to be encouraged to send their daughters to school. The Govt. and NGOs should patronize (c„ô‡cvlKZv Kiv) the education for girls in order that they can be educated and can play a vital role in the development of our country. (Words : 211)

(a) What is an earthquake? (b) How frequent is it now in Bangladesh? (c) Are our people aware of the gravity of its loss? (d) Why are experts giving more attention to the issue of earthquake in recent times? (e) What precautions would you suggest as safety measures against earthquake?                                                                        [CB’16; CtgB ’10]


Earthquake is one of the most common natural calamities on earth. Earthquake is an abrupt (AvKw¯§K) movement of a part of the Earth’s surface caused by deep crack in the Earth or by volcanic (Av‡Mœq) eruption (AMœ~¨rcvZ). It causes great disaster. Bangladesh is in the active earthquake area. Now, it is frequently (NbNb) felt in Bangladesh. But the people of our country are not conscious enough about the gravity (AwfKl©) of this dangerous natural calamity. Most of the buildings of our country will be destroyed if they are not built in accordance with an earthquake resistant (cÖwZ‡ivaK) standard. A group of experts opine that the repetition of quakes in recent years should be taken as a signal for a major earthquake. Another group of experts believe that the concern should not be amplified (ewa©Z Kiv), because there are a number of fault lines in the geographical area comprising Bangladesh. But none of them is active enough to pose a major threat. So, in order to protect us from this impending (Avmbœ) danger, we must be conscious about the causes and results of earthquake. We should not build house without the advice of expert. The Government should take steps for this disaster. The Government should develop earthquake resistant building code that all buildings should follow as mandatory. (Words : 207)

(a) What is computer? (b) What are the components of a modern computer? (c) What is the importance of computer? (d) What are the benefits of using a computer? (e) Can a society move fast forward without computer?                                                              [CtgB’16]


Computer is a wonderful invention of modern science. It is a complex electronic machine that consists of innumerable ingredients. Now there are normally two types of computer. They are desktop and laptop. Desktop is more common and popular than the laptop which is rather expensive. Any computer has two parts. They are hardware and software. The mechanical and electronic parts are called hardware. Software refers to the data or programmes that we use to serve our purposes. A computer consists of five major components–the input unit, the memory unit, the control unit, the arithmetic unit and the output unit. The memory unit, the control unit and the arithmetic unit constitute central processing unit. However, every computer has its machine language to give instruction for operation. This language may vary from machine to machine. Anyway, computer, nowadays, has become inseparable (Awe‡”Q`¨) from our daily life. This modern machine is being used almost in every sector of human activities. Scientists are using it for carrying out research activities. Doctors are using it for diagnosis. The use of computer has changed the entire banking system. Even this machine is being used in education and agriculture sector. Thus computer is now contributing to the advancement of life and building up of new potentialities in science and technology. (Words : 213)

(a) What do you understand by culture? (b) What is the biggest cultural function of Bangladesh? (c) When is it celebrated? (d) How is it celebrated? (e) How do the rural people celebrate the day?                                                                                                       [SB’16; CtgB ’13]

                          Celebration of Pahela Baishakh

Culture is the way we lead our life. Every nation has a culture of its own. Pahela Baishakh, the first day of Bangla New Year is a part and parcel of Bengali culture. It is celebrated throughout the country with great festivity and fervour. The day’s first programme begins at Ramna Batamul. Wearing punjabi and pajama people of different ages and classes attend the programme. Chhayanat, a cultural organization performs there. They sing in chorus (`jxq Mvb) welcoming the Bangla New Year. A procession is brought out carrying festoons, posters, banners, placards. The participants dance and sing wearing masks. The Shilpakala Academy, Jatiya Press Club and many other socio-cultural organizations arrange cultural and discussion programmes. Bangladesh television and Bangladesh Betar telecast live programmes. The national dailies bring out special supplements highlighting the significance of the day. The traders and businessmen open halkhata and entertain the customers with sweets. People roam around different areas. They eat special foods and enjoy carnivals. A remarkable arrangement on this day is the colourful procession known as ‘Mangal-shovajatra’ by the students of the Institute of Fine Arts of Dhaka University. Thus goes the day amidst (g‡a¨; gvSLv‡b) the flow of joy everywhere. In fact, the celebration of Pahela Baishakh reminds us of our cultural heritage that we are going to lose. (Words : 212)

(a) Where is Bangladesh situated? (b) When did she get her freedom? (c) How is the climate in Bangladesh? (d) Which are the main rivers of the country? (e) What are the main attractions of the country? (f) How do you feel about your country? [BB’16, ’15, DinajB ’11; RB ’11; CtgB ’11, ’08, ’06; SB ’11; DB’08; CB ’05; ’05, ’03; JB ’04]

                     My Country/Bangladesh/Homeland

Bangladesh lies on the shore of the Bay of Bengal in the South of Asia. India surrounds the other three sides of this tiny country. She got her freedom once from Britain in 1947 and next from Pakistan on 16th December, 1971. Dhaka is the capital of this country. the tropic of cancer and the 90° longitudinal line intersect almost in the middle of the country. It is a temperate (bvwZkx‡Zvò) country. there are six seasons in our country-summer, rainy season, autumn, late autumn, winter and spring. the total land area of the country is 1,47,570 square kilometers and the land is plain and fertile. Bangladesh is a land of rivers. The Padma, the Meghna, the Jamuna are the main rivers of our country. The population of the country is about 140 million and the majority of the population are farmers. Rice, jute, wheat, tea, sugar-cane etc. are our main crops. besides  these, various fruits like mangoes, jackfruits, pine-apples, papaws, coconuts, orange, palms, guavas grow here. The natural beauty is the main attraction of this country. cox’s Bazar is known around the world for its silvery sandy sea beach and Rangamati for its evergreen hills and lakes and special natural sites worth seeing for the tourists. (Words : 206)

(a) What is the most talked about issue at the present moment? (b) What are the causes of price hike? (c) What are the effects of price hike? (d) What should be done to remove the curse of price hike?                                                                                                      [DB ’15]

                                  Price hike/Price spiral

Price hike or the increase of price of the daily essential commodities is the most talked about issue at the present time. In our country it has become a usual phenomenon now. The price of the daily commodities is soaring sky high to go out of reach of the poor and the lower middle class people of our country. There are a lot of causes behind this price hike. Hoarding of essential commodities by the dishonest businessmen is one of the causes of price hike. Smuggling and black marketing by traders and people in general are also important factors causing price rise. Many dishonest men have earned huge black money through black marketing. This has caused great suffering to the people. Shortage of supply due to low production also accelerates the price hike of essential goods. At present syndicate business has added to this plight. Due to inflation price hike is more acute in our country. Government mechanism to curb price hike is defective. Many poor villagers cannot afford to manage two square meals a day. Very often they suffer from malnutrition and other diseases. Many even die without getting proper medical treatment. Public awareness against illegal hoarders of the daily necessaries, smugglers and black marketeers can remove this curse from the country. (Words : 213)

(a)  What is good health? (b) How can we keep good health? (c) Do all the people of your country get the food they need for good health? (d) What impact do the complexities of life have on our health? (e) Do you  think a simple and carefree life is conducive to good health?                                                      [RB ’15; CB ’09; SB ’07; DB ’04]

                                          Good Health

Good health refers to the soundness of both mental and physical health. people with good health are fit, active and free from diseases. Obviously, good health is the root of all happiness. But, to maintain good health is not an easy task. For keeping one’s health good, one has to follow certain rules and discipline. One has to take regular physical exercise, proper rest or sleep. Early rising is essential for keeping health good. Balanced diet is the key word to concentrate in this regard. Balanced diet is a diet that contains all kinds of food value. But, it is a great regret (AbyZvc) that most of the people of our country live below the poverty line and they do not get the food they need for good health. Even the rich and the educated people are not conscious of the rules of good health. they take a wide variety of imbalanced food only for creating harm to their health. The complexities of our day to day life have a bad impact on our health. they create frustration, hopelessness and many other mental disorders. all these are impediments (†h‡Kv‡bv cÖwZeÜK) to mental peace and sound body. those complexities have to be avoided because a simple and care-free life is conducive to good health. (Words : 210)

(a) What do you mean by deforestation? (b) What are the reasons for deforestation? (c) What are the effects of it? (d) How can we save our country from it?                                                                                                                                                               [DinajB ’15]


Trees are the best friends of human on earth. When trees are cut indiscriminately (wbwe©Pv‡i) and forests are destroyed massively (wekvjfv‡e), we cause deforestation. People cut trees for various reasons. they need wood for building houses and for making furniture. the ever growing population needs more space to live and cultivate. So, people are deforesting. Again the high price of wood makes people greedy to cut them. But we must know that without trees no life is possible on earth. We take oxygen from air and leave carbon-dioxide. Trees on the other hand, take carbon-dioxide and leave oxygen. If there is no tree, there will be lack of oxygen in the air. Trees help us to get adequate (ch©vß; h‡_ó) rain. Raindrops help the plants to grow. If there is no tree, the land will gradually turn into a desert. Trees help to preserve soil. where there are not adequate trees, the soil of the land will be gone away during floods. besides, we get wood from trees. with this wood we make our furniture. So, we should avoid cutting trees. And if we cut a tree for our need we should plant at least two plants. We must be aware of growing more trees for ecological balance of our country and the world as well. (Words : 212)

(a) What do you know about the 21st February? (b) Why is the day important in our life? (c) What is the historical background of this day? (d) What has this day brought for us? (e) Who were the martyrs of this day? (f) What is the present status of this day? (g) How is this day celebrated now?                                                                  [JB’ 15; RB ’06]

The 21st February or,

                  International Mother Language Day

The 21st February is the Language Martyrs’ Day. On this very day in 1952, Barkat, Rafiq, Jabbar, Shafiur and Salam sacrificed their lives for the honour and preservation of their dear mother tongue, Bangla. On 17 November 1999, UNESCO declared this day as International Mother Language Day. Now Ekushey February is being observed as the International Mother Language Day all over the world. The then Pakistani rulers wanted to make ‘Urdu’ as the state language of Pakistan by force. The people of the then East Pakistan in general, and the students of Dhaka University in particular, protested vigorously against the unjust and autocratic decision of the government. The students violated section 144 and at one stage, they were fired by the Pakistani army. Thus the heroic sons of the soil laid down their invaluable lives with a view to pressing demand for declaring Bangla as the state language of Pakistan. The Pakistani govt. at last yielded to the demand and declared Bangla as the state language of Pakistan. In commemoration of this tremendous sacrifice, and to make this historic day memorable, eventually, the Central Shaheed Minar was constructed. As such, this unforgettable Day has brought national pride, prestige and national integrity for us. Indeed, the 21st February ultimately led to the struggle for Independent Bangladesh. (Words : 215)

(a) Who is a beggar? (b) Why is begging regarded as a serious social problem? (c) What does begging create in the beggar? (d) What are the reasons behind this problem? (e) What are the effects of the beggar problem in our country? (f) Can you suggest any remedy for this problem?                                                                            [CB’15; DB ’07]

                                         Life of a Beggar

A beggar is a person who begs to others from door to door for his livelihood. He is usually an old, blind, crippled or disabled person. He is found in torn or patched clothes. Begging is unproductive. It does not produce anything. That is why, it is regarded as a serious social problem. Most of our people dislike a beggar. The beggars do not have any respect in the society. Begging creates a kind of low mindedness in a beggar. Disableness like blindness, deafness (m¤•–Y© ev AvswkK Kvjv) or some other disorders in body are some reasons behind it. Besides, unemployment, divorce, low life standard are some of the causes. There are some exceptions too. Sometimes, we see some beggars who are neither blind nor disabled. They try to deceive the common people by telling sad stories to get money from them. But there are some old and disabled beggars who are really helpless. We should  be sympathetic to those beggars who are really helpless. Begging has a far reaching effect in our society. I think poverty alleviation (Dckg), employment facilities, education, free treatment for some diseases can remove this problem from society. Both government and social activists should come forward to remove the problem from the society. (Words : 205)

(a) What do you understand by load-shedding? (b) When and why does it occur? (c) How does it affect us? (d) What are its impact on our economy? (e) How can we minimize load-shedding?

[CtgB ’15; DinajB ’09; JB ’08; CB ’07; CtgB ’07; DB ’05]

                                       Load Shedding

Load Shedding is an often-heard term nowadays in our country. it means the suspension of the supply of electricity for a certain period. There are various causes of load-shedding. Insufficient production of electricity is one of them. The government of Bangladesh cannot meet the increasing demand of electricity. There are many people who misuse electricity in different ways, thus they create shortage of it. Besides, illegal connection of electricity causes load-shedding. Load shedding creates lots of problems in our daily life. Lack of electricity  means lack of production in mills and factories. Fresh food kept in the refrigerator gets rotten. In hot weather, the situation becomes worse. The surrounding of a locality becomes ghostly during load shedding at night. Snatchers (wQbZvBKvix) become active and they rob people of their money and other goods. it also disturbs the study of students. Actually, the economy of our country depends on electricity. Industrial factories are difficult to run on without electricity. Load-shedding also hampers agricultural production as power-pumps and other necessary mechanical tools are run by it. So, people should be conscious about the misuse of it. Illegal connection and system loss should be avoided. The government should plan properly and take step to solve this problem. (Words : 203)

(a) What does climate change mean? (b) What are the causes of climate change? (c) What are the effects of climate change? (d) Why is Bangladesh vulnerable to climate change? (e) What is the world’s largest mangrove forest? Why is it at risk now?          [SB’15]

                                       Climate change

Changes in the earth’s weather including changes in temperature, wind patterns and rainfall refer to as climate change. Climate change is a long term change in weather patterns over a long period of time. It is now a major global concern. Greenhouse gases that include carbon dioxide, methane and CFC are the main causes of this climate change. Our atmosphere which is guarded by an ozone layer resists the entrance of ultra-violet rays from the sun causing greenhouse effect. Climate change is the worst of all the problems that affect all the flora and fauna of the environment. Bangladesh, being a low-lying land, may become the worst victim of it. There are many plants and animals that are vulnerable to climate change. The summer and rainy seasons are already prolonging and winter is shrinking. The river banks are being eroded and crop land is being reduced. Besides, saline water is intruding into the rivers in the coastal areas resulting in damage to farm lands. Moreover, floods, droughts and other disasters hit the country more frequently nowadays. Over the past century, sea level has risen by 10 to 20 centimetres as a result of global warming. The Sundarbans, world’s largest mangrove forest is also at severe risk. All these lead to more landless people and climate refugees in the country. (Words : 219)

(a) What is your idea about a book fair? (b) When and where is it held usually? (c) What purpose does it serve? (d) How is it organised? (e) What steps can be taken to make such a fair successful?

[DB ’14; RB ’12; RB ’10; JB ’09; CB ’08; CtgB ’05; SB ’03]

                                             Book Fair

Nowadays book fairs are well-known to most of the  people both in villages and towns. A book fair is a display of a great stock of books of various interests. Every year many book fairs are held in different places of our country. In the national days such as 21st February, 16th December, 26th March and also in the new year book fairs are arranged. the two main book fairs held in our country are the Ekushey Boi mela and the Dhaka Boi Mela. A book fair is very much popular. Readers can purchase their desired books. Authors also meet their favourite readers. This year I visited the book fair arranged by the Bangla Academy on 21st  February. Everywhere there was a  festive look. various publication companies hire stalls. many types of necessary articles are found there. all kinds of books such as drama, novel, poetry, adventure, biography, translation are usually found. New writers often arrange discussion programmes on their new books. Seminars and cultural programmes are also held in such a fair. Actually, books are the best  companions and a book fair only gives us opportunities to seek books from a great collection. if we can arrange a disciplined book fair, the fair will be successful. (Words : 207)

(a) What is culture and what are the elements? (b) What does culture reflect? (c) What things do you notice in Asian and western culture? How does it differ from one to another? (d) What is our traditional dress and food and what is the speciality of our music? What is the changing trend in our country?  (e) How is it influenced by foreign culture and what do you mean by cultural assault?             [RB ’14; CB ’14]


Culture means the established customs and beliefs, art, ways of life etc of a particular society or of a country. The culture of a nation reflects its ideas, attitudes and social condition. The elements of culture are its own language, thoughts about the bad and good, ways of working. They also include its literature, music, games and sports, the means and objects made and used by the people in that society. A human being is the most important element of a society. We can study a person by observing his frequent activities. In the same way we can study a society by observing the remarkable ways and modes of life of that particular society. There are various societies in the world and so there are different cultures. A traditional and established mode of belief and behaviour in one culture may prove unsuitable in another culture. The modes of behaviour in Asian societies are often conservative. But in western countries they are much frank and relaxed. Cultures vary from one society to another. Our music has notable distinction; while western music mainly relies on instruments. When the cultural traits of some country have a remarkable impact on the culture of a foreign country, it is called cultural assault. Now our culture is being westernized in many ways; our literature, music, painting and even our life-style are gradually changing. (Words : 227)

(a) What is Bangla New Year? (b) How do people celebrate it in Bangladesh? (c) What functions are usually observed on this day? (d) What are the differences in the rural and urban celebration of the day? (e) Who are the more interested people to celebrate the day? [DinajB ’14; JB ’10]

                                      Bangla New Year

The first day of Bangla New Year is Pahela Baishakh. It is one of the most popular public celebrations in the life of Bangladeshis. This day bears a special significance to us. Every year this day of cultural and traditional heritage (HwZn¨) is celebrated all over the country with enthusiasm and funfair. It is a unique and distinctive festival to the people of all classes and communities in Bangladesh. The day is a public holiday. The day has an appeal to both the rural and urban people. On this day the shopkeepers open their new accounts book and celebrate it through arranging Halkhata festival. They invite their customers and clients and offer sweets and other foods. The customers pay all dues they left out throughout the year. The village people also arrange Baishakhi Mela in different places. The village people of all classes enjoy them very much. In the capital city the day opens with the celebration of Chhayanat, a leading cultural organization. Besides, Bangla Academy, National Museum, National Press Club etc. arrange meetings and seminars. The Institute of Fine Arts of Dhaka University brings out a colourful procession wearing various masks. Various mass media give coverage to the significance of the day. Thus, the day is a national day and comes to the life of every Bangladeshi with pleasure and happiness. (Words : 223)

(a) Why is Bangladesh called a land of natural calamities? (b) What is the most common natural calamity here? (c) When does it usually occur? (d) What are its effects? (e) Can we control it?

[JB ’14; DinajB’13; BB ’08; CB ’04]

                     Natural Hazards/Natural Calamities

Natural hajards/calamities pose a great threat to the ecological balance of a country. Natural calamities such as floods, cyclones, earthquakes and erosion etc. are very dangerous by nature. Bangladesh is called a land of natural calamities. It is becoming more and more harmful these days. Nowadays it can be very ruinous (¶wZMÖ¯@) to make millions of people its victims in a second. Fires, droughts, earthquakes, violent storm, flood, river erosion are the most common natural calamities. Every year cyclone destroys our lives and properties, floods take away all things to the river and sea, earthquakes destroy our lives and homes. Cold winter, mist storm impede (e¨vnZ Kiv ev evav †`Iqv) our normal works of everyday life and sometimes destroy man. this is not all, nature is also losing its balance for ever increasing heat created from carbon dioxide. So, greenhouse effect is swelling (ùxZ Kiv) the normal level of sea water. After any natural disaster, people who become shelterless have to depend on the relief and charity of other people. Actually, we become miserable in any calamities. We cannot resist (†iva Kiv) them. We can only take some steps to lessen the misery of the victims. We can create consciousness among people and train them how to protect them from the grim and grave natural hazards. (Words : 217)

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